ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation Deck (54):
1

where is NAH and FADH2 produced?

in the mitochondrial matrix by catabolic processes (glycolysis, PDH, TCA cycle)

2

What is electron transport ?

moving electrons of the NADH or FADH2 (high energy compounds) along the inner mitochondrial components that are fixed in the membrane

3

what is oxidative phophorylation?

converting energy into energy that can be synthesized into ATP from ADP

4

what complexes contain iron-sulfur proteins? why is it important?

complex I, II and III
dynamic role in electron transfer process

5

what does hypoxia do to the ETC?

decreases the rate of ETC and ATP production
a drop in cellular ATP increases anerobic glycolysis and lactic acid production-- anerobic glycolysis cannot meet most tissue demands

6

what can results from hypoxia?

myocardial infarction - tissue damage, leakage of enzymes (CK 1,2,LDH) and triponin I and T

7

Which molecule has the highest energy and lowest?

ATP, ADP, AMP

ATP - highest = more negative delta G
AMP - lowest

8

where does ETC and OP happen?

inner mitochondria membrane

9

what is the purpose of ETC?

make ATP from ADP using NADH and FADH2

10

what is the final proton acceptor and product?

oxygen
water

11

at what complexes are protons pumped into intrermembrane space

complex 1,3, 4

12

when will ETC be active?

high NADH/NAD+ ratio
Low ATP/ADP ratio (or high ADP)

13

Where is malate transproted?

into the mitochondria

14

where is aspartate transported?

out of the mitochondria

15

what phospholipid is essential for functioning of the ETC?

cardiolipin

16

what part in the ETC can an electron be lost and a superoxide may be formed?

at CoQ - entry point of electrons from glycerolphophate shuttle

17

when is the only time the heme groups intereact with molecular oxygen?

complex IV - the other complexes they just transport electrons

18

Name eight drugs or compounds that inhibit the ETC.

The ETC is inhibited by Amytal, Rotenone , Pericidin A, Antimycin A, Sodium azide, cyanide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide.

19

11. Name 2 inhibitors of ADP-ATP translocase

The ADP-ATP translocase is inhibited by the toxins from plants like atractyloside and bongkrekic acid.

20

13. How can ATP formation be described using the Mitchell’ Chemiosmotic theory?

The generation of a proton gradient by complex I, III and IV allows the usage of the energy of the generated proton gradient when the protons flow back into mitochondria through ATP synthase.

The energy generated by the proton gradient is enough to perform the ATP generation by ATP synthase, however, the ATP formation has to be connected to the ETC transport chain.

21

list the 7 diseases involving mutation in mitochondrial DNA

Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy
Myoclonic epilepsy
Ragged-Red Fiber Disease
MELAS
Aminoglycoside Induced Deafness
Rhabdomyolysis
Leigh disease (neurological disorder due to mutation of PDH, ETC or ATP synthase, nuclear and mtDNA can be affected)

22

what are the prosthetic groups (reversibly accept and donate electrons) in complex I and II?

FMN and FAD

22

what are the prosthetic groups (reversibly accept and donate electrons) in complex III ?

heme group Fe3+

23

what are the prosthetic groups (reversibly accept and donate electrons) in complex IV?

Cu2+ and heme group Fe3+

23

what direction is DHAP going?

out of the mitochondria

24

what drieciton is G-3-P going>

into the mitochondria

24

how many ATP does NADH

3 ATP in Malate aspartate shuttle
2 ATP in glycerol phosphate shuttle

25

how many ATP does FADH2 equal?

2 ATP

25

when will ETC be active?

high ADP and high NADH

26

what does hypoxia do to the ETC?

decreases the rate of ETC and decrease ATP formation = anaerobic glycolysis can't handle it -= MI

26

what drieciton is G-3-P going>

into the mitochondria

27

how many ATP does NADH

3 ATP in Malate aspartate shuttle
2 ATP in glycerol phosphate shuttle

27

how many ATP does NADH

3 ATP in Malate aspartate shuttle
2 ATP in glycerol phosphate shuttle

28

how many ATP does FADH2 equal?

2 ATP

28

how many ATP does FADH2 equal?

2 ATP

29

when will ETC be active?

high ADP and high NADH

29

when will ETC be active?

high ADP and high NADH

30

what are the prosthetic groups (reversibly accept and donate electrons) in complex I and II?

FMN and FAD

31

what are the prosthetic groups (reversibly accept and donate electrons) in complex III ?

heme group Fe3+

32

what are the prosthetic groups (reversibly accept and donate electrons) in complex IV?

Cu2+ and heme group Fe3+

33

what direction is DHAP going?

out of the mitochondria

34

what drieciton is G-3-P going>

into the mitochondria

35

how many ATP does NADH

3 ATP in Malate aspartate shuttle
2 ATP in glycerol phosphate shuttle

36

how many ATP does FADH2 equal?

2 ATP

37

when will ETC be active?

high ADP and high NADH

38

what are the prosthetic groups (reversibly accept and donate electrons) in complex I and II?

FMN and FAD

39

what are the prosthetic groups (reversibly accept and donate electrons) in complex III ?

heme group Fe3+

40

what are the prosthetic groups (reversibly accept and donate electrons) in complex IV?

Cu2+ and heme group Fe3+

41

what direction is DHAP going?

out of the mitochondria

42

what drieciton is G-3-P going>

into the mitochondria

43

how many ATP does NADH

3 ATP in Malate aspartate shuttle
2 ATP in glycerol phosphate shuttle

44

how many ATP does FADH2 equal?

2 ATP

45

when will ETC be active?

high ADP and high NADH

46

what does hypoxia do to the ETC?

decreases the rate of ETC and decrease ATP formation = anaerobic glycolysis can't handle it -= MI