Ethics Flashcards Preview

MD3001 > Ethics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ethics Deck (17)
1

What are the acts governing animal research?

cruelty to animals
ASPA - animals in scientific procedures act
home office

2

what are the 3 Rs in ASPA

reduction
replacement
refinement

3

describe the tiers of animal regulation

Home office
animals procedures inspectorate
local ethics committee
site licence
personal licence
project licence
concordat on openness

4

what governs NHS research

NRES
national research ethics service

5

give some strategies for resource allocation

equal access
according to clinical need
according to health gains - QALY
age discrimination
individual responsibility for disease
according to ability to pay
excluding treatment
random allocation

6

what is the role of NICE

evidence based guidance for health and care practitioners

technology appraisal recommendations

7

describe a technology appraisal

1. recommended for use in NHS
2. only in certain pt groups
3. only in trials
4. should not be used in the nhs

8

what is the organisational duty of candour?

organisations must inform patients when they have been harmed as a result of care
ill treatment of wilful neglect is a crime
apologies

9

what is the professional duty of candour

tell the patient
apologise
offer support/ remedy
explain fully the effects

10

what may happen as a response to inadequate care

legal action
nhs complaints procedure
gmc disciplinary action

11

what must be established in a negligence claim

1 owed a duty of care
2 failure to provide reasonable care
3 caused harm (causation and proximity + probability not possibility)

12

what is the bolam test

if a dr has acted in accordance with a practice accepted as proper by other drs

13

what is the Bolitho test

bolam + must be capable of withstanding logical analysis

14

describe the impact of montgomery

1. does the pt know the risks
2 does the pt know of reasonable alternatives
3. have I taken reasonable care to make sure the patient actually knows this

15

what are the stages of an nhs complain

local resolution
ombudsman
judicial review

16

what is a persons/ systems approach

1 focused on dr
2 seeks to minimise opportunities for error in the environment

17

how are errors reduced

dedicated centres
retraining
improved instrument design
protocols
checklists