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Flashcards in ethnicity Deck (26)
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linguistic skills
Bereiter and Engelmann (1966)

consider the spoken language of black American families as inadequate for educational success. Studies in the USA refer to the 'ebonics' used by some black children as not meeting the elaborate code used within schools, creating a barrier for students.
Also, children who do not speak English at home may also be held back educationally.


family structure
Moynihan (1965)

argues that because governmental stats tell us that black families are disproportionately headed by a lone mother in comparison to other ethnic groups, children may be deprived of adequate care due to financial constraints, as well as lacking a male role model


family structure
Murray (1984)

argues that generally, lone parenthood leads to lack of positive male role models


attitudes and values

argues that Asian families tend to have an 'Asian WorkEthic'. this means they may play a high value on education


attitudes and values Lupton

also suggests that the adult authority structure in Asian homes - with 21% of households made up of a multi-generational family with dependant children, mirrors that of education so respectful behaviour was expected of children


racism exists in all layers within society including

housing - ethnic minorities are sent to worse housing areas perhaps rough areas, asian and black families are generally the most deprived

employment - less ethnic minorities in higher paying jobs treated differently in workplace. underpaid ethnic minorities

welfare - NHS not free for British citizens refugees - not allowed to work, relieve benefits

Criminal Justice system - often gives different sentences based on your ethnicity. lack of effort in investigating ethnic minorities cases. stop and search tends to be racist


DFES Research Paper (2006)

"minority ethnic pupils are more likely to experience deprivation than white British pupils, especially Pakistani, Bangladeshi, black African and black Caribbean pupils. for example 70% of Bangladeshi pupils and almost 60% of Pakistani and black African pupils live in the 20% most deprived post code areas compared to less than 20% of white British pupils"


family structure Sewell

argues it may not be a lack of father figure leading to black boys underachievement but their lack of 'tough love' leading to the boys seeking out other boys who rely on each other as role models
much of their identity stems from media influences which emphasise 'ultra tough ghetto superstar' image


family structure Driver

suggests the Black families provide strong role models for girls, thus explaining the higher rates of achievement amongst black girls


attitudes and values Lawrence

suggests that black attitudes are not fatalistic or e'weaker' but are simply the by product of racism in wider society. recognising structural racism should be the starting point of analysis


Modood (2004)

found that although low income families do less well, it has a bigger effect on white pupils than ethnic minorities - suggesting its not the biggest factor for ethnic minorities underachievement


Noon case study

- the same CV with the names 'Evans' and 'Patel'
- 'Evan' the western sounding name got more job offers


Wood (2010) similar to Noons case study

similar study to Noon
results demonstrated that 1 in 16 'ethnic minority' applications got offered an interview while 1 in 9 'white' applications


Gilbourn + Mirza (2000)

in one local education authority black children were the highest achievers on entry level to primary school (20 points above average [locally]) yet by the time it came to GCSE they had the worst results of any ethnic group - 21 points below average


black pupils and discipline Gillbourn and Youdell (2000)

found teachers were quicker to discipline black students than others of the same behaviour
argue that this is a result of teacher 'racialised expectations'


Bourne (1994)

schools tend to see black boys as a threat and label them negatively leading eventually to exclusion


pupil identities Archer (2008)

teacher dominant discourse, defines ethnic minority pupils' identities as lacking the favoured identity of the ideal pupil


3 pupil identities

the ideal pupil identity - white middle class masculinised identity, normal sexuality this pupils seen was achieving in the 'right' way through natural ability and initiative

the pathologies pupil identity - an Asian 'deserving poor' ; feminised identity with either asexual or oppressed sexuality seen as a plodding conformer and culture bound overachiever

the demonised pupil identity - a black or white WC hyper sexualised identity this pupil is seen as unintelligent peer led culturally deprived underachiever


Shain (2003)

not that when Asian girls challenges this stereotype by misbehaving, they are often dealt with more severely than other pupils


3 types of teacher racism

the colour blind - teachers who believe all pupils are equal but in practice allow racism to go unchallenged

the liberal chauvinists - teachers who believe black pupils are culturally deprived and who have low expectations of them

the overt racists - teachers who believe blacks are inferior and actively discriminate against them


Sewell the variety of boys responses of teacher racism

the rebels: small minority of black pupilsofte excluded from school, conform to anti school stereotype anti authority

the conformists: largest group keen to succeed accept the schools goals have friends from different ethnic groups try to avoid being steryotyped

the retreats: tiny minority of isolated individuals - disconnected from school and black subcultures despised by rebels

the innovators: second largest group, pro education but anti school value success but don't seek teacher approval and conform only as far as school works concerned


evaluation of labelling and pupil responses

labelling theory shows how teachers stereotypes can be a cause of failure
theres a danger of seeing these stereotypes as as the product of individual teachers prejudices rather than of racism in the way that the education system as a whole operates
danger of assuming once labelled pupils will automatically fall victim to the self fulfilling prophecy


critical race theory

sees racism as an ingrained feature of society


marketisation and segregation

policy of introducing market forces of supply and demand into areas run by the state such as education and the NHS (schools being like a business advertised with the A-C economy more kids = more money target market is white MC girls)


ethnocentric curriculum

curriculum focused around one culture (white western) history disregarding other cultures making them feel inferior



Gillbourn (2008) argues 'the assessment game' is rigged so as to validate the dominant cultures superiority . if black children succeed as a group ' the rules will be changed to re-engineer failure'