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Flashcards in Europe & Western Asia/Bede Deck (110)
1

The year ___ A.D. marks the official end of the Roman Empire

476

2

As the Roman Empire disintegrated the two main agents of continuity were the Eastern Roman (or ___) Empire and the ___.

Bysantine, Christian

3

The Byzantine Empire lasted until the year ___.

1453

4

The agents of change were the ___ groups that were migrating - as they encountered Roman and Byzantine culture they became ___.

barbarian, Christian

5

Byzantium passed the heritage of the ___ civilization on to later cultures.

Greco-Roman

6

Constantinople was able to withstand repeated invasions, first because of strong ___ leadership and second, the city's ___ and excellent fortifications.

military, location

7

Because Constantinople survived the ___ Empire survived, though reduced in territory.

Byzantine

8

For several centuries the Sassanid Empire of ___ was Byzantium's most regular foe.

Persia

9

The Sassanid Empire benefited from a lucrative caravan trade that was linked to the __ Road and ___.

Silk, China

10

___ was the official state religion of the Sassanid Epire and adherents to other religions sometimes faced discrimination.

Zoroastrianism

11

The Byzantines crushed the ___ in a series of battles ending in 627 A.D., and by 651 the Sassanid dynasty collapsed.

Persians

12

Justinian ordered reform and organization of Roman law, and the result was three works which became the back bone of the corpus juris civilis, the ___ ___, which serves as the foundation of law for most European nations.

Justinian's Code

13

We know that Byzantine intellectual Life was sophisticated because among member of the large reading public, ___ was a favorite subject.

history

14

By the seventh century Constantinople was the greatest city in the ___ world" and may have been the 3rd largest city in the world.

Christian

15

The word byzantine is sometimes used to mean extremely entangled and complicated ___

politics

16

As the Western Roman Empire disintegrated the Christian Church survived and grew and became the most important ___ in Europe

institution

17

The church adopted the geographical units of the Roman Empire called ___ where each was headed by a ___.

dioceses, bishop

18

The center of the bishop's authority was his ___.

Cathedral

19

Ambrose of ___ was one of the "fathers of the ___", who were recognized as having authority second only to the Bivle.

Milan, church

20

In 380, the emperor ___ made Christianity the ___ religion of the empire.

Theodosius, official

21

___ - a schism that was handled by Constantine in 325 A. D. as the ___ Creed attempted to define the nature of Christ.

Arianism, Niceen

22

Belief that contradicted the interpretation of church leaders was called ___, while what the church leaders defined as correct was known as ___.

heresy, orthodoxy

23

As the bishops of Rome asserted their authority and understanding known as ___ Doctrine - used to claim that the bishop of Rome should be viewed as the ___ - from the Latin for pap.

Petrine, Pope

24

The Christian Church headed by the pope in Rome was generally called the ___ Church.

Roman

25

Later the Roman Church would be known as the Roman ___ Church, with catholic meaning general, ___, or worldwide.

Catholic, universal

26

The lack of any real political unity in the West opened the door for popes from Rome to assert secular ___ as well as religious authority and nongovernmental ___ in world history.

authority, institution

27

In the East Rome's claims were not accepted and gradually the Eastern ___ Church began to diverge from the Western church headquartered in Rome, Italy.

Orthodox

28

Although Christianity originated as a city religion, some pious Christians came to believe that a life of ___ was a better way to show their devotion to Christ's teachings.

ascetiscism

29

The first individuals who believed in a life of asceticism were known as ___ or ___ and this form of monasticism was known as ___ monasticism,

hermits, monks, eremitical

30

Monks decided to live together and ___ communities developed

monastic

31

In 529, ___ of Nursia wrote a set of "regulations" for the monks who had gathered around him at ___, known as the ___ (from the Latin Regula)

Benedict, Monte Cassino, Rule

32

The rule of Saint ___ has influenced all forms of organized religious life in the roman church, including Sacred Heart Monastery and Mount Marty College

Benedict

33

In a Benedictine monastery the monastic life included prayer and manual ___.

labor

34

Benedict's twin sister ___ adopted his Regula for the use of her community.

Scholastica

35

Benedictines conducted ___ for local young people.

schools

36

Some Benedictines copied ___ and wrote ___.

manuscripts, books

37

Over the centuries Benedictines ___ and educated ___ Europe, and Bishop Martin Marty viewed himself in this role as as he brought Catholicism to ___ Territory.

Christianized, Western, Dakota

38

The most influential church father in the west was Saint ___ of Hippo.

Augustine

39

While the Greeks and Romans taught that knowledge would lead to ___, Augustine argued that "original ___" had corrupted human will.

virtue, sin

40

In Augustine's scheme God restores the strength of the will through ___ which is transmitted in certain rituals that the church defined as ___/.

grace, sacraments

41

The ___ disagreed with the veneration of icons and favored their destruction, which they viewed as a form of ___.

Iconoclasts, idolotry

42

The dispute on the veneration of icons created the ___ controversy which caused the Byzantine Empire and the Roman ___ to sever relations.

iconoclastic, papacy

43

Iconoclasm antagonized the pope and served to encourage him in his quest for an alliance with the ___monarchy.

Frankish

44

IN 1054 the bishop of Rome and the patriarch of Constantinople excommunicated each other, creating a ___ or split that continues today as we have the Roman ___ and Eastern ___ Churches.

schism, Catholic, Orthodox

45

Throughout barbarian Europe, the religion of the ___ or ___ determined the religion of the people.

Chieftain, King

46

Tradition identifies the conversion of Ireland with Saint ___ and the conversion of England began in the year ___.

Patrick, 597

47

Britain later served as the base for the ___ of the European continent.

Christianization

48

The conversion of Europeans to Christianity was a gradual one and the text says that missionaries and priests got the masses to understand the Christian relgion through preaching, assimilation of pagan ___, the ritual of ___ and veneration of ___.

customs, penance, saints

49

Parish churches often housed saints' relics, that is bones and articles of ___, or other objects associated with them. The relics served as ___between the ___ world and the ___, and miracle stories about saints and their ___ were an important part of Christian preaching and writing.

clothing, links, material, spiritual, relics

50

One barbarian kingdom that came to have a decisive role in history was that of the ___.

Franks

51

Clovis' conversion to Christianity won him support of the papacy and the bishops of ___.

Gaul

52

As wars raged this era was often called the ___ Ages.

Dark

53

A powerful family known as the ___ replaced the Merovingians

Carolingians

54

In 732 A.D., a Carolingian named Charles ___ defeated ___ invaders at the Battle of Poitiers.

Martel, Muslim

55

Martel and his soldiers used new technology (___) and new weapons (___) to defeat the Muslim invasions which did keep the religion of Islam from spreading deeper into Europe

stirrups, lances

56

The most powerful of the Carolingian rulers was ___.

Charlemagne

57

On Christmas Day in the year 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne ___

emperor

58

In taking as his motto, "Revival of the ___ Empire", he was deliberately perpetuating the old ___imperial ideas while identifying with the new Rome of the ___Church. This marked the decisive break between Rome and ___.

Roman, Roman, Christian, Constantinople

59

The alliance between the Frankish Monarch and the Roman Papacy, marks the first time that a sense of ___ and ___ unity emerges in western Europe.

Religious, Political

60

Although Charlemagne was ore of a warrior than a thinker, he set in motion a cultural revival later called the Carolingian ___ which was a rebirth of interest in the achievements of classical ___ and ___. He has become a symbol of European ___ in the 21st century.

Renaissance, Greece, Rome, unity

61

Thomas Jefferson was a proponent of ___ History Lesson

Conventional

62

Identifying factors of conventional history

* where the eras of western history get there names
* Greeks and Romans on pedeswtals

63

According to conventional history the Greeks were praised for

* philosophy
* Tragedies
* Parthenon

64

According to convention history, the Romans were praised for

* Practical Arts - Roads, etc
* Pantheon

65

Under The Revised history Lesson the Roman & Greeks were criticized for

* slavery
* infanticide
* warfare
* subordination of women

66

The middles ages were ___ and ___ source of the structures of the modern, western world.

dynamic, creative

67

While the Enlightenment of the Conventional History Lesson was key to the modern emphasis on ___, it did not "discover" them.

human rights

68

The ___ is a derogatory term to refer to a long period of stagnation

middle ages

69

The middle ages were ___ by the ___, despots, and monarchs.

dominated, church

70

The ___ identifies basic human rights such as (2 points)

Magna Carta
* Trial by Jury
* Taxation only by consent

71

Bede lived from 672 to 735, in a northern region of England known as ___.

Northumbria

72

Bede at the age of ___ was taken to the monastery at Wearmouth, and soon after he moved to the monastery at ___, where , at the age of 49 became a ___ and at the age of ___ he was ordained as a priest

7, Jarrow, deacon, 30

73

Jarrow was attacked by the Danes in the ___ century but the ruins remain.

9th

74

In 597 A.D., Saint ___ brought "Latin" Christianity to England. Bede excelled at the Latin language during the ___ Ages, a testimony to the impact that the Roman Empire and Christianity had on the formation of Europe.

Augustine, Dark

75

Monks such as Bede, from the ___ Order of monasticism dedicated themselves to the copying of various ___.

Benedictine, manuscripts

76

While Bede lived at Jarrow, at least ___ copies of the Bible were made, and Bede may have worked on some of these manuscripts which still exist today.

3

77

The library at Jarrow contained somewhere between ___ and ___ books, all of which were copied by hand.

300, 500

78

Bede tells us that his sources included (3) things

* ancient documents
* traditions of the elders
* his own knowledge

79

The majority of Bede's scholarship was devoted to interpretation of the ___, but he is most well remembered for being a ___.

Bible, historian

80

A ___ century manuscript from Durham makes reference to Bede.

12th

81

Bede is best remembered for writing an Ecclesiastical History of the ___ Speaking People, which was complete in 731, when he was around ___ years old.

English, 59

82

Bede was the first to date events from the time of ___ (A.D.) and he was the first scholar to use this method of dating.

Christ

83

Bede's approach to dating supported a ___ interpretation of history, claiming that God had entered human history via the ___ relationship with Abraham and Moses, continuing on to the ___ with the culmination of history being the Second___ of Christ.

linear, covenant, incarnation, coming

84

Bede had a ___motivation for writing history, hoping that subsequent generations would learn from the mistakes and achievements of previous generation

moralistic

85

By the ___ century, Bede was recognized as the ___ Bede, and in 1899 Pope ___XIII canonized Bede as the only English ___.

9th, Venerable Leo, Doctor of the Church

86

The word venerable means:

Worthy of respect by reason of age, dignity or position

87

Just before his death, Bede translated the Gospel of ___ from Latin into Anglo Saxon, the ___ language of his place and time.

John, venacular

88

Bede mush have believed that the Bible should be made accessible to ___ - not just scholars who understood Latin.

Everyone

89

Saint ___ was born in Italy in 480 AD, just as the Roman Empire was disintegrating .

Benedict

90

In 529, Benedict wrote a set of "regulations" for the monk at ___

Monte Cassino.

91

The Latin word for rule is "___" and the Rule of Saint Benedict should be considered more as a guide to a balanced way of life than a set of rules that have to be obeyed.

regula

92

When Benedict was in desperate need of food, a ___ brought him bread.

Raven

93

An attempt to assassinate Benedict was thwarted when___

the cup of poison cracked

94

Benedict had a twin sister named ___

Scholastica

95

The rule of Saint Benedict has been followed by men and women for nearly ___ centuries.

15

96

Benedictine monasteries became economically self-sufficient and the copying of ___ was one of their major contributions to the Christianization and education of ___ Society in the middle ages.

manuscripts, European

97

Hildegard of ___ was a famous medieval mystic and an accomplished musician.

Berger

98

Benedictine ___are still studied by modern-day architect.

Monasteries

99

The Saint ___Bible is a 21st century version of a hand-written Bible.

John's

100

Bishop Martin ___ (1834-1896) brought Catholicism to Dakota Territory, hoping to convert Native Americans. He is commemorated with a statue in ___, South Dakota.

Marty, Marty

101

Today Bishop Marty is remembered as the ___.

Apostle of the Sioux Indians.

102

Bishop Marty invited a community of Benedictine sisters to Yankton and the end result is ___.

Sacred Heart Monastery

103

Bishop Marty convinced ___ to be baptized into the Catholic Christian faith.

Sitting Bull

104

Bishop Marty was later named ___ was Sioux Falls

Bishop

105

A primary Benedictine motto is "Ora et labora", which means___.

Prayer and Work

106

Bishop Marty Chapel is and example of ___ architecture, built in the late 1940s and early 1950s with sandstone from ___ Near Saint ___, Bishop Marty's first monastic community in the U.S.

modified Gothic
Indiana
Meinrad

107

Gothic architecture was designed to focus a worshippers attention toward the ___ realm.

heavenly

108

The window along the top of Bishop Marty Chapel depict angels summoning Christians to worship with ___ and ___.

trumpets and insense

109

The windows in the choir depict Martin Mary bringing the Gospel to ___ in the year ___ and inviting Benedictine Sisters to establish a monastery.

Native Americans, 1889

110

The Benedictine Sisters are depicted as ___ -- under the direction of Mother Jerome ___, they established Mount Marty college.

teachers and nurses, Schmidt