Flashcards in Europe & Western Asia/Bede Deck (110)
The year ___ A.D. marks the official end of the Roman Empire
As the Roman Empire disintegrated the two main agents of continuity were the Eastern Roman (or ___) Empire and the ___.
The Byzantine Empire lasted until the year ___.
The agents of change were the ___ groups that were migrating - as they encountered Roman and Byzantine culture they became ___.
Byzantium passed the heritage of the ___ civilization on to later cultures.
Constantinople was able to withstand repeated invasions, first because of strong ___ leadership and second, the city's ___ and excellent fortifications.
Because Constantinople survived the ___ Empire survived, though reduced in territory.
For several centuries the Sassanid Empire of ___ was Byzantium's most regular foe.
The Sassanid Empire benefited from a lucrative caravan trade that was linked to the __ Road and ___.
___ was the official state religion of the Sassanid Epire and adherents to other religions sometimes faced discrimination.
The Byzantines crushed the ___ in a series of battles ending in 627 A.D., and by 651 the Sassanid dynasty collapsed.
Justinian ordered reform and organization of Roman law, and the result was three works which became the back bone of the corpus juris civilis, the ___ ___, which serves as the foundation of law for most European nations.
We know that Byzantine intellectual Life was sophisticated because among member of the large reading public, ___ was a favorite subject.
By the seventh century Constantinople was the greatest city in the ___ world" and may have been the 3rd largest city in the world.
The word byzantine is sometimes used to mean extremely entangled and complicated ___
As the Western Roman Empire disintegrated the Christian Church survived and grew and became the most important ___ in Europe
The church adopted the geographical units of the Roman Empire called ___ where each was headed by a ___.
The center of the bishop's authority was his ___.
Ambrose of ___ was one of the "fathers of the ___", who were recognized as having authority second only to the Bivle.
In 380, the emperor ___ made Christianity the ___ religion of the empire.
___ - a schism that was handled by Constantine in 325 A. D. as the ___ Creed attempted to define the nature of Christ.
Belief that contradicted the interpretation of church leaders was called ___, while what the church leaders defined as correct was known as ___.
As the bishops of Rome asserted their authority and understanding known as ___ Doctrine - used to claim that the bishop of Rome should be viewed as the ___ - from the Latin for pap.
The Christian Church headed by the pope in Rome was generally called the ___ Church.
Later the Roman Church would be known as the Roman ___ Church, with catholic meaning general, ___, or worldwide.
The lack of any real political unity in the West opened the door for popes from Rome to assert secular ___ as well as religious authority and nongovernmental ___ in world history.
In the East Rome's claims were not accepted and gradually the Eastern ___ Church began to diverge from the Western church headquartered in Rome, Italy.
Although Christianity originated as a city religion, some pious Christians came to believe that a life of ___ was a better way to show their devotion to Christ's teachings.
The first individuals who believed in a life of asceticism were known as ___ or ___ and this form of monasticism was known as ___ monasticism,
hermits, monks, eremitical
Monks decided to live together and ___ communities developed
In 529, ___ of Nursia wrote a set of "regulations" for the monks who had gathered around him at ___, known as the ___ (from the Latin Regula)
Benedict, Monte Cassino, Rule
The rule of Saint ___ has influenced all forms of organized religious life in the roman church, including Sacred Heart Monastery and Mount Marty College
In a Benedictine monastery the monastic life included prayer and manual ___.
Benedict's twin sister ___ adopted his Regula for the use of her community.
Benedictines conducted ___ for local young people.
Some Benedictines copied ___ and wrote ___.
Over the centuries Benedictines ___ and educated ___ Europe, and Bishop Martin Marty viewed himself in this role as as he brought Catholicism to ___ Territory.
Christianized, Western, Dakota
The most influential church father in the west was Saint ___ of Hippo.
While the Greeks and Romans taught that knowledge would lead to ___, Augustine argued that "original ___" had corrupted human will.
In Augustine's scheme God restores the strength of the will through ___ which is transmitted in certain rituals that the church defined as ___/.
The ___ disagreed with the veneration of icons and favored their destruction, which they viewed as a form of ___.
The dispute on the veneration of icons created the ___ controversy which caused the Byzantine Empire and the Roman ___ to sever relations.
Iconoclasm antagonized the pope and served to encourage him in his quest for an alliance with the ___monarchy.
IN 1054 the bishop of Rome and the patriarch of Constantinople excommunicated each other, creating a ___ or split that continues today as we have the Roman ___ and Eastern ___ Churches.
schism, Catholic, Orthodox
Throughout barbarian Europe, the religion of the ___ or ___ determined the religion of the people.
Tradition identifies the conversion of Ireland with Saint ___ and the conversion of England began in the year ___.
Britain later served as the base for the ___ of the European continent.
The conversion of Europeans to Christianity was a gradual one and the text says that missionaries and priests got the masses to understand the Christian relgion through preaching, assimilation of pagan ___, the ritual of ___ and veneration of ___.
customs, penance, saints
Parish churches often housed saints' relics, that is bones and articles of ___, or other objects associated with them. The relics served as ___between the ___ world and the ___, and miracle stories about saints and their ___ were an important part of Christian preaching and writing.
clothing, links, material, spiritual, relics
One barbarian kingdom that came to have a decisive role in history was that of the ___.
Clovis' conversion to Christianity won him support of the papacy and the bishops of ___.
As wars raged this era was often called the ___ Ages.
A powerful family known as the ___ replaced the Merovingians
In 732 A.D., a Carolingian named Charles ___ defeated ___ invaders at the Battle of Poitiers.
Martel and his soldiers used new technology (___) and new weapons (___) to defeat the Muslim invasions which did keep the religion of Islam from spreading deeper into Europe
The most powerful of the Carolingian rulers was ___.
On Christmas Day in the year 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne ___
In taking as his motto, "Revival of the ___ Empire", he was deliberately perpetuating the old ___imperial ideas while identifying with the new Rome of the ___Church. This marked the decisive break between Rome and ___.
Roman, Roman, Christian, Constantinople
The alliance between the Frankish Monarch and the Roman Papacy, marks the first time that a sense of ___ and ___ unity emerges in western Europe.
Although Charlemagne was ore of a warrior than a thinker, he set in motion a cultural revival later called the Carolingian ___ which was a rebirth of interest in the achievements of classical ___ and ___. He has become a symbol of European ___ in the 21st century.
Renaissance, Greece, Rome, unity
Thomas Jefferson was a proponent of ___ History Lesson
Identifying factors of conventional history
* where the eras of western history get there names
* Greeks and Romans on pedeswtals
According to conventional history the Greeks were praised for
According to convention history, the Romans were praised for
* Practical Arts - Roads, etc
Under The Revised history Lesson the Roman & Greeks were criticized for
* subordination of women
The middles ages were ___ and ___ source of the structures of the modern, western world.
While the Enlightenment of the Conventional History Lesson was key to the modern emphasis on ___, it did not "discover" them.
The ___ is a derogatory term to refer to a long period of stagnation
The middle ages were ___ by the ___, despots, and monarchs.
The ___ identifies basic human rights such as (2 points)
* Trial by Jury
* Taxation only by consent
Bede lived from 672 to 735, in a northern region of England known as ___.
Bede at the age of ___ was taken to the monastery at Wearmouth, and soon after he moved to the monastery at ___, where , at the age of 49 became a ___ and at the age of ___ he was ordained as a priest
7, Jarrow, deacon, 30
Jarrow was attacked by the Danes in the ___ century but the ruins remain.
In 597 A.D., Saint ___ brought "Latin" Christianity to England. Bede excelled at the Latin language during the ___ Ages, a testimony to the impact that the Roman Empire and Christianity had on the formation of Europe.
Monks such as Bede, from the ___ Order of monasticism dedicated themselves to the copying of various ___.
While Bede lived at Jarrow, at least ___ copies of the Bible were made, and Bede may have worked on some of these manuscripts which still exist today.
The library at Jarrow contained somewhere between ___ and ___ books, all of which were copied by hand.
Bede tells us that his sources included (3) things
* ancient documents
* traditions of the elders
* his own knowledge
The majority of Bede's scholarship was devoted to interpretation of the ___, but he is most well remembered for being a ___.
A ___ century manuscript from Durham makes reference to Bede.
Bede is best remembered for writing an Ecclesiastical History of the ___ Speaking People, which was complete in 731, when he was around ___ years old.
Bede was the first to date events from the time of ___ (A.D.) and he was the first scholar to use this method of dating.
Bede's approach to dating supported a ___ interpretation of history, claiming that God had entered human history via the ___ relationship with Abraham and Moses, continuing on to the ___ with the culmination of history being the Second___ of Christ.
linear, covenant, incarnation, coming
Bede had a ___motivation for writing history, hoping that subsequent generations would learn from the mistakes and achievements of previous generation
By the ___ century, Bede was recognized as the ___ Bede, and in 1899 Pope ___XIII canonized Bede as the only English ___.
9th, Venerable Leo, Doctor of the Church
The word venerable means:
Worthy of respect by reason of age, dignity or position
Just before his death, Bede translated the Gospel of ___ from Latin into Anglo Saxon, the ___ language of his place and time.
Bede mush have believed that the Bible should be made accessible to ___ - not just scholars who understood Latin.
Saint ___ was born in Italy in 480 AD, just as the Roman Empire was disintegrating .
In 529, Benedict wrote a set of "regulations" for the monk at ___
The Latin word for rule is "___" and the Rule of Saint Benedict should be considered more as a guide to a balanced way of life than a set of rules that have to be obeyed.
When Benedict was in desperate need of food, a ___ brought him bread.
An attempt to assassinate Benedict was thwarted when___
the cup of poison cracked
Benedict had a twin sister named ___
The rule of Saint Benedict has been followed by men and women for nearly ___ centuries.
Benedictine monasteries became economically self-sufficient and the copying of ___ was one of their major contributions to the Christianization and education of ___ Society in the middle ages.
Hildegard of ___ was a famous medieval mystic and an accomplished musician.
Benedictine ___are still studied by modern-day architect.
The Saint ___Bible is a 21st century version of a hand-written Bible.
Bishop Martin ___ (1834-1896) brought Catholicism to Dakota Territory, hoping to convert Native Americans. He is commemorated with a statue in ___, South Dakota.
Today Bishop Marty is remembered as the ___.
Apostle of the Sioux Indians.
Bishop Marty invited a community of Benedictine sisters to Yankton and the end result is ___.
Sacred Heart Monastery
Bishop Marty convinced ___ to be baptized into the Catholic Christian faith.
Bishop Marty was later named ___ was Sioux Falls
A primary Benedictine motto is "Ora et labora", which means___.
Prayer and Work
Bishop Marty Chapel is and example of ___ architecture, built in the late 1940s and early 1950s with sandstone from ___ Near Saint ___, Bishop Marty's first monastic community in the U.S.
Gothic architecture was designed to focus a worshippers attention toward the ___ realm.
The window along the top of Bishop Marty Chapel depict angels summoning Christians to worship with ___ and ___.
trumpets and insense
The windows in the choir depict Martin Mary bringing the Gospel to ___ in the year ___ and inviting Benedictine Sisters to establish a monastery.
Native Americans, 1889