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Flashcards in Everything Deck (64):
1

In an infant, in what position is the airway open

in neutral

2

After look, listen and feel for signs of life (for 10 sec), what is the next step in an infant

5 rescue breaths

3

How many chest compressions to breathing do you do for an infant

15:2

4

At what speed do you do this

to nelly the elephant

5

In what position is the airway open in a child

sniffing the air (slight head tilt and chin lift)

6

How far down the should you press the chest in paeds CPR

1/3rd of the way

7

How long should resus be continued

till you are too tired to continue/ someone arrives

8

An infants heart rate can be up to _____ max

160bpm

9

An infants resp rate can be up to ______ max

40brpm

10

An infants sBP can be as low as ______

70mmHg

11

What is different about a childs head to an adults

They have a large head and prominent occiput

12

What is the site of maximal spinal mobility in children

at the craniocervical junction (this is higher up than adults)

13

How is an infants resp tract different from adults that has to be considered in intubation

they have a floppy epiglottis and higher anterior larynx

14

Which fractures are more common in children

buckle and greenstick fractures (as they have longer bones and more flexible ribs

15

How is blood volume/kg different to adults

its higher

16

What are the 2 causes of cardiac arrest in a child

circulatory failure and resp failure (resp has better outcome when alone than when combined with cardio failure)

17

What are the causes of circulatory failure

Fluid loss - blood loss
- gastroenteritis
- burns

fluid malabsorption - septic shock
- cardiac disease
- anaphylaxis

18

What are the causes of resp failure

resp distress - foreign body
- croup
- asthma

resp depression - convulsions
- raised ICP
- poisoning

19

How does the sick child present acutely

difficulty breathing
poor feeding
fever
rash
lethargy/depressed conscious level
dehydration

20

Effort of breathing can be shown by what head movement of the child

bobbing

21

gurgling and squeaking can be a sign of which illness in an infant

bronchiolitis

22

inspiratory stridor indicates

upper airway problem

23

expiratory wheeze indicated

lower airway problem

24

Why is hypotension a pre-terminal sign

children are good at maintaining BP until they are far along the disease course at which point they rapidly deteriorate

25

What is the most common cause of dehydration in children

gastroenteritis

26

What is the treatment for dehydration by gastroenteritis in children

orally rehydrate with dioralyte (if dehydration >10%, fluid maintenance needed)

27

Sepsis in a child will present as

hot
lethargic
tachycardic
reduced peripheral perfusion

28

What is the sepsis 6

high flow O2
blood cultures
Broad spec Abx
IV fluid
Lactate and Hb levels
Hourly urine output

29

A septic screen consists of

Lumbar puncture (to rule out meningitis)
Urine cultures
Blood cultures
FBC

30

When should an endocrine pathology be considered in a child with growth concerns

If the child is both short and overweight - get some TFTs done

31

Short stature in a child can be due to what

Genetics
constitutional

32

Are UTIs common/uncommon in children

very common - esp. young girls

33

What is the most causative organism of a UTI in a child

E.coli

34

When deciding to refer a child for a UTI, what should be considered

frequency
age (new baby - more likely to refer)
nature of infection (if child is systemically unwell/ RTI)
Pathogen (unusual = refer)
FH (of UTIs or renal disease)

35

Constipation is very common in children, how many have a serious underlying pathology

very few

36

What is the management for constipation in a child

laxatives
attention to food and drink (up fibre intake)
toilet behaviour (accessible toilet, do they have time to go before school, is the child ready for an adult toilet)

37

Abdominal pain is common. when is it most likely a problem

when very disruptive - missing lots of school

38

What 2 diagnosis do you not want to miss in a child with abdo pain

ceoliac
IBD

39

what percentage of kids with functional abdominal pain go on to develop anxiety as adults

25%

40

Red flags for headaches in a child include

headaches on waking
worse on coughing/bending
associated vomiting, esp. in morning
visual disturbance
gait disturbance
cranial nerve palsy
head tilt

41

median time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis of brain tumour is

2.5 - 3 months

42

Is the most common murmur pathological or innocent in a child

innocent

43

When would you be more worried about a heart murmur in a child

if there is associated symptoms (SOB, cyanosis, squatting, syncope)

44

When is asthma suggestive in a child

if theres a FHx
Wheeze on auscultation
If there's a constant problem (periods of normality is more likely to suggest URTIs)
sleep disturbance
exacerbation by cold/exercise

45

Indications for concerns in a growth chart include

sudden deviation from the centile line they were previously in
a big difference between height and weight centile

46

Breast feeding mothers should take what supplement

Vitamin D

47

A child of >/= 6months should take what supplements

Vitamin A, C and D

48

Growth in a child is led by

growth hormone

49

Growth in a pubertal child is led by

sex hormones

50

Which vaccines are given at 2 months

diptheria
tetanus
polio
Hib (DTaP/IPV/Hib vaccine)
PCV (pneumococcal)
Rotavirus

51

What vaccines are given at 3 months

DTap/IPV/Hib (2nd dose)
Men C
Rotavirus

52

What vaccines are given at 4 months

DTap/IPV/Hib (3rd dose)
PCV (2nd dose)

53

What vaccines are given between 12-13 months

Hib/Men C (booster jag)
PCV (3rd dose)
MMR (measles, mumps, rubella)

54

What vaccine is given at 3yrs 4 months - 5yrs

DTap/IPV (pre-school booster)
MMR (2nd dose)

55

Girls aged 12-13 should get what vaccine

HPV - 3 injections

56

What vaccine is given at 13-15 yrs

Men C booster

57

What vaccine is given at 1-18 yrs

Td/IPV (tetanus, diptheria and polio booster)

58

what are the red flags in developmental milestones

Asymmetry for movements
Not reaching for objects by 6 months
unable to sit unsupported by 12 months
unable to walk by 18 months
*girls who are carriers of DMD will also have delay - check CK
No speech by 18 months
loss of skills
listen to parent

59

What is an example of motor delay in a child

DMD
Cerebral palsy
Co-ordination disorders

60

What is an example of language delay in a child

Specific language impairment

61

What is an example of sensory deficits and associated delay in a child

Oculocutaneous albinism
Treacher-collins

62

What is an example of developmental deviations in a child

Autism spectrum disorders

63

What percentage of severe visual problems originate in the brain of a child

50%

64

Treacher collins affects what

hearing loss due to conducting problems
also affects development of face, ossicles and ears