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Flashcards in Evidence For Evolution Deck (35):

What are the 6 different evidences for evolution?

-Comparative studies: Biochemistry (DNA& proteins), Embryology, Anatomy( homologous structures)
- vestigial organs
- biogeography
- fossils


What are phylogenies trees?

A diagram showing evolutionary relationships between organisms; also called a dendogram


How is biochemistry used in compariative studies?

Mitochondrial DNA
Protein sequences


What are bioinformatics?

Multidisciplinary field that combines all areas of biological science with computer science, statistics and applied mathematics to help understand biological processes
In practical terms is use of computers to describe molecular components


What are comparative genomics?

Is a field of biological research in which the genome sequence of different species are compared. It allows researchers to identify regions of similarity and difference,


What are the 2 main categories of dating methods? ( for fossils)

Absolute dating and relative dating


What does relative dating do?

Actual age


What does absolute dating do?

Tells you if one sample is older or younger than other fossils


Define half life?

Time it takes for radioactive elements to decompose by half


What is potassium argon dating?

Measures the rate of radioactive potassium decay to form calcium and argon


Limitations of potassium argon dating?

- can only date volcanic rocks older than 100000 to 200000
- not all rock types are suitable for this method can only be used for volcanic rocks


What is carbon 14 dating?

- carbon 14 ( radioactive) decays to nitrogen, half life is 5730 years and ratio of C14:c12 provides an absolute date for the fossil



Limitations of carbon 14 dating?

- amount of carbon 14 in air varies
- material to be dated must contain organic compounds
- requires at least 3 grams of organic material
- can not be used to date back more than about 60000


What is dendrochronology?

Ring dating, counting the centric rings of surface of cut tree trunk.
Each ring= one year of growth
Difference in width= indicates how favourable the growing season was


Limitations of dendrochronology

- timber rarely preserved for more that a few thousand years
- particular conditions necessary for the method do not occur often


What is stratigraphy?

Study of layers of strata. They use two principles to do this
- principle of superposition
- correlation of rock strata


What is principle of superposition?

Layer on top younger than the ones below


What is principle of correlation of rock strata?

Matching layers of rock from different layers


What are index fossils used for?

Index fossils allow for more precise relative dating. They are used to define and identify geological time periods as they were only in existence for a specific time.

Eg, fossilised pollen grains


What is fluorine dating?

Relative dating method, when a bone is left in the soil fluorine ions which are present m water in the soil replace some of the ions in the bones
So the older the fossil= more fluorine


Limitations of fluorine dating?

- fluorine levels in water differs from area to area
- can only compare fossils from the same location.


What are evrs

Endogenous retrovirus
Junk DNA. It is a viral sequences hat has become part of an organisms genome. Comparing humans and chimps, same evrs are found in the same locations on chromosomes


How can PCR be used in evidence for evolution

PCR can be used to amplify minute amounts of DNA so that can be used to facilitate the sequencing of the genome.
Can be Useful with fossils where sometimes only small amounts of DNA may be available


How can DNA profiling be used in evidence for evolution

Can be invaluable in tracing ancestry and relationships btwn individuals and groups


How can mitochondrial DNA be used in evidence for evolution

Human mtDNA has been slowly diverging from the mtDNA from our original female ancestors and the amount of mutation is roughly proportional to the amount of time that has passed.


Define ubiquitous protein?

One of a group of proteins that appear to be in all species from bacteria to humans.
Eg. cytochromes


What is embryology?

Comparing the very early stages of the development of organisms


What are homologous organs?

Organs that are similar in structure but are used in different ways


What are vestigial organs?

Organs that may have once been important but have lost or changed their functions


Examples of vestigial organs?

Nicitating membrane
Muscles to move ears
Wisdom teeth + pointed canines
Nipples on males
Hair on body


Define fossil?

Evidence of or remains of an organism that lived long ago
Eg. footprints, burrows, faeces or impressions of an animal or plant


Define artefacts?

Objects that have been deliberately made by humans eg. stone heads, carvings and charcoal from cooking fires


What is accelerator mass spectrometry (ams) radiocarbon dating?

A more refined technique that can be used to date a sample as small as 100 micrograms


List some absolute dating methods?

Carbon 14
Uranium thorium
Potassium argon
Electron spin resonance
Fission tracks


Define index fossil?

Fossils or organisms that were on the earth for only a short period of time and are therefore useful in relative dating of rock strata