Evidence of Growing Social Class Equality Flashcards Preview

A2 Sociology > Evidence of Growing Social Class Equality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Evidence of Growing Social Class Equality Deck (31):
1

Average income increase between 1979 and 1999

36% increase between 1979 and 1999

2

What now protects people from low pay?

Minimum and now the living wage

3

What has increased (income)?

Share ownership and car ownership

4

Which % of people now own their own homes?

70%

5

What is the difference between what the top 1% earned in 1911 vs now?

In 1911 they owned 69% wealth, now own 17%

6

What measures have increased equality in education?

Equal opportunity government funding (eg university grants)
Charities such as the Sutton Trust

7

What does Saunders (New Right) say about education opportunities?

Equal opportunity measures mean class is losing its significance, achievement or failure now has more to do with effort and ability than income

8

What do Pakulski and Waters say?

Class is dead, consumption is more important

9

Which % of the population are upper class?

1%

10

What has created downward social mobility?

Inheritance taxes

11

What now exists between social class groups?

A blurring of boundaries

12

What does Roberts say

Weberian - middle class is fragmented

13

What does Zweig say?

Marxist view - embourgoisement - the working class is becoming more like the middle class (convergence)

14

What does Braverman say

Marxist view - proletarianisation - lower m/c are more like w/c (giving the uc more power)

15

What does Hall say about social class?

It is no longer a 'master identity' - ethnicity more important

16

What did Bradley find

Polarization between the rich and poor - evaluates growing social class equality

17

What did Scott identify?

A unified upper class - evaluates growing social class equality - they practised social closure and controlled 'power blocs'

18

What did Saunders say about the upper class

New Right view - the upper class has been eroded

19

Which % of the workforce are now middle class?

60%

20

What does Savage say about the middle class?

It has fragmented into 5 sections:
professionals; managers; self employed; routine white collar; new technology

21

Which % of the workforce are now working class?

30%

22

What did Zweig say has caused the reduction in the working class?

Embourgeoisement

23

What did Roberts find?

Traditional working class identity is in decline

24

What did Savage suggest?

Although the working class may not identify as working class, inequality based on class is now MORE important

25

Which theorist identified a deviant underclass?

Murray- created by welfare dependency

26

What did Morris find about the underclass?

There was no evidence of them having distinct values, wanted to work

27

What did Field suggest caused the underclass?

Benefits are too low and cause marginalization

28

What are some structural explanations of the underclass?

Field - benefits being too low causing marginalization
Guy Standing - precariat (Barron and Norris)

29

What do Marxists say about the underclass?

Not a distinct group, just the most exploited working class

30

What is a Weberian view of the underclass?

Rex and Tomlinson - underclass lack status and party

31

What do Functionalists think of the underclass?

Davis and Moore - poverty is actually functional