Flashcards in Evidence of Growing Social Class Equality Deck (31):
Average income increase between 1979 and 1999
36% increase between 1979 and 1999
What now protects people from low pay?
Minimum and now the living wage
What has increased (income)?
Share ownership and car ownership
Which % of people now own their own homes?
What is the difference between what the top 1% earned in 1911 vs now?
In 1911 they owned 69% wealth, now own 17%
What measures have increased equality in education?
Equal opportunity government funding (eg university grants)
Charities such as the Sutton Trust
What does Saunders (New Right) say about education opportunities?
Equal opportunity measures mean class is losing its significance, achievement or failure now has more to do with effort and ability than income
What do Pakulski and Waters say?
Class is dead, consumption is more important
Which % of the population are upper class?
What has created downward social mobility?
What now exists between social class groups?
A blurring of boundaries
What does Roberts say
Weberian - middle class is fragmented
What does Zweig say?
Marxist view - embourgoisement - the working class is becoming more like the middle class (convergence)
What does Braverman say
Marxist view - proletarianisation - lower m/c are more like w/c (giving the uc more power)
What does Hall say about social class?
It is no longer a 'master identity' - ethnicity more important
What did Bradley find
Polarization between the rich and poor - evaluates growing social class equality
What did Scott identify?
A unified upper class - evaluates growing social class equality - they practised social closure and controlled 'power blocs'
What did Saunders say about the upper class
New Right view - the upper class has been eroded
Which % of the workforce are now middle class?
What does Savage say about the middle class?
It has fragmented into 5 sections:
professionals; managers; self employed; routine white collar; new technology
Which % of the workforce are now working class?
What did Zweig say has caused the reduction in the working class?
What did Roberts find?
Traditional working class identity is in decline
What did Savage suggest?
Although the working class may not identify as working class, inequality based on class is now MORE important
Which theorist identified a deviant underclass?
Murray- created by welfare dependency
What did Morris find about the underclass?
There was no evidence of them having distinct values, wanted to work
What did Field suggest caused the underclass?
Benefits are too low and cause marginalization
What are some structural explanations of the underclass?
Field - benefits being too low causing marginalization
Guy Standing - precariat (Barron and Norris)
What do Marxists say about the underclass?
Not a distinct group, just the most exploited working class
What is a Weberian view of the underclass?
Rex and Tomlinson - underclass lack status and party