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Flashcards in Evidence to evolution Deck (13)
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1

Genome

The complete set of genetic material in a cell; an organism's complete set of DNA

2

Comparative genomics

the comparisons of genome sequences of different species. e.g. The human genome project in 2003.

3

Junk DNA

Non-coding sequences of bases in the DNA

4

Endogenous retroviruses (ERV)

a retrovirus that has become part of an organisms genome and exists in every cell of the body. retroviruses store there genetic info as RNA not DNA

5

reverse transcription

A process where the base sequence in RNA is copied during the synthesis of DNA

6

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)

mtDNA is DNA found in the mitochondria of the cells, rather than in the nucleus

7

Inheritance of mtDNA

our mtDNA only come from the egg (i.e. the mother) as after Fertilisation that mtDNA is destroyed in the sperm.

8

Evidence from mtDNA

- mtDNA has a higher rate of mutation
- if mtDNA are identical they are closely related
- mtDNA makes it possible to track the routes of
migration of common ancestors
- important in mapping relationships between species

9

Protein sequences

A comparison of the type and sequence of the amino acids in the protein of other species.

10

Ubiquitous proteins

one of a group of proteins that appears to be in all species from bacteria to humans; the small protein call ubiquitin was so names because it is present in all types of cells

11

Cytocheme C

a great example of a ubiquitous proteins. Important in the electron transport system in cellular respiration which occurs in all cells.

12

Bioinformatics

the use of computers to describe the molecular components of living. Used to gain info about DNA, proteins.

13

Annotation

Identification of genes in a DNA sequence