Flashcards in Evolution- Descent with Modification Deck (40)
What is evolution?
Processes transforming life on earth from ancestral forms to forms observed today
What did Anaximander do?
First to write down that living things change with time
What did Plato do?
"Essentialism"- variation in nature comes from a limited number of constant essences
What is Aristotle's "Scala Naturae"?
- Affinities between similar life forms
- Ladder or scale of increasing complexity
- Permanent rungs
What is typological thinking?
- Individual difference are chalked up to accidents
- Types are constant
- This thinking ignores variation
What is population thinking?
- Recognizes that each individual is unique
What happened in the 17th-18th century?
- Mix of Plato, Aristotle, and Old Testament
- All existing species had been created and were fixed
Who was Linnaeus?
- System of binomial Latin name for species
- Hierarchical groupings of species
What was the downfall of essentialism?
- Assumes universe is changing
- Breakthroughs show that universe and the earth is constantly changing
What was Ptolemy?
What was the scientific revolution?
Placed earth at centre of universe
When Copernicus and Galileo changed the Ptolemaic view
What did Ussher do?
Calculated that creation occurred on October 23 4004 BC at noon but was proved wrong
What did Hutton propose?
Gradualism- slow processes can cause massive change if there is enough time. Processes ongoing
What did Lyell propose?
Uniformitarianism- sam as gradualism but processes are ongoing and occurring at the same rate
Who is Buffon?
-Suggested the idea of biological evolution
- Pointed out the similarity of humans and apes
Who is Cuvier?
What did he propose?
- First to confirm extinctions
- Opponent of gradualism and evolution
- Catastrophism- local events wipe out species in area and new species immigrate
Who is Lamarck?
-Applied gradualism to biology
- Proposed first mechanism of evolution
- Parents pass on traits they develop
-Inheritance off acquired characteristic
What is inheritance of acquired characteristics?
-Populations adapt to new environment
Can eventually lead to new species
Who was Charles Darwin?
- Wrote "On the Origin of Species"
- Trip on HMS Beagle for 5 years
What did Captain Fitzroy invent?
The storm glass and the term weather forecast
What geological observations did Darwin make?
- Coral attols and volcanic islands
- Earthquakes lifting mussel beds above water
-Marine fossils at high elevation
What biological observations did Darwin make?
-South American organisms very different than European
- Temperate organisms from SA similar to tropical organisms from SA
- Endemic island species similar to mainland species in sam region
- Giant fossil animals similar to extant SA species
What are Darwin's finches?
-Many from different islands in Galapagos
- Forgot which islands but taught Fitzroy
- Suggested a connection between species, geography, and adaptation
What was the process of "On the Origin of Species"
- Finished essay in 1844 but packed it away for 14 years
- Lyell urged him to publish it
- Kept adding evidence while working on other projects
Who was Alfred Wallace?
- Admired Darwin and set out to Amazon to solve the origins of species but his ship and collection burnt
- Wrote "On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type"
- Combined this with Darwin's "Origin of Species"
What are Darwin's Two Ideas?
1. Evolution explains life's unity and diversity
2. Natural selection caused adaptive evolution
What is descent with Modification?
All organisms are related through descent form an ancestor that lived in the remote past
What are Mayr's 2 observations?
1. No two individual's are exactly alike
2. Many offspring fail to survive and reproduce
What are Mayr's 2 inferences?
1. Individuals whose inherited traits give them higher probability of surviving and reproducing are likely to leave more offspring than other individual
2. The unequal ability on individual to survive and reproduce will lead to gradual change in the population with adaptive/favoured characteristic accumulating over generation
What is artificial selection?
Human modification of species