Evolution- Descent with Modification Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Evolution- Descent with Modification Deck (40)
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What is evolution?

Processes transforming life on earth from ancestral forms to forms observed today


What did Anaximander do?

First to write down that living things change with time


What did Plato do?

"Essentialism"- variation in nature comes from a limited number of constant essences


What is Aristotle's "Scala Naturae"?

- Affinities between similar life forms
- Ladder or scale of increasing complexity
- Permanent rungs


What is typological thinking?

- Individual difference are chalked up to accidents
- Types are constant
- This thinking ignores variation


What is population thinking?

- Recognizes that each individual is unique


What happened in the 17th-18th century?

- Mix of Plato, Aristotle, and Old Testament
- All existing species had been created and were fixed


Who was Linnaeus?

- System of binomial Latin name for species
- Hierarchical groupings of species


What was the downfall of essentialism?

- Assumes universe is changing
- Breakthroughs show that universe and the earth is constantly changing


What was Ptolemy?

What was the scientific revolution?

Placed earth at centre of universe

When Copernicus and Galileo changed the Ptolemaic view


What did Ussher do?

Calculated that creation occurred on October 23 4004 BC at noon but was proved wrong


What did Hutton propose?

Gradualism- slow processes can cause massive change if there is enough time. Processes ongoing


What did Lyell propose?

Uniformitarianism- sam as gradualism but processes are ongoing and occurring at the same rate


Who is Buffon?

-Suggested the idea of biological evolution
- Pointed out the similarity of humans and apes


Who is Cuvier?

What did he propose?

- First to confirm extinctions
- Opponent of gradualism and evolution
- Catastrophism- local events wipe out species in area and new species immigrate


Who is Lamarck?

-Applied gradualism to biology
- Proposed first mechanism of evolution
- Parents pass on traits they develop
-Inheritance off acquired characteristic


What is inheritance of acquired characteristics?

-Populations adapt to new environment
Can eventually lead to new species


Who was Charles Darwin?

- Wrote "On the Origin of Species"
- Trip on HMS Beagle for 5 years


What did Captain Fitzroy invent?

The storm glass and the term weather forecast


What geological observations did Darwin make?

- Coral attols and volcanic islands
- Earthquakes lifting mussel beds above water
-Marine fossils at high elevation


What biological observations did Darwin make?

-South American organisms very different than European
- Temperate organisms from SA similar to tropical organisms from SA
- Endemic island species similar to mainland species in sam region
- Giant fossil animals similar to extant SA species


What are Darwin's finches?

-Many from different islands in Galapagos
- Forgot which islands but taught Fitzroy
- Suggested a connection between species, geography, and adaptation


What was the process of "On the Origin of Species"

- Finished essay in 1844 but packed it away for 14 years
- Lyell urged him to publish it
- Kept adding evidence while working on other projects


Who was Alfred Wallace?

- Admired Darwin and set out to Amazon to solve the origins of species but his ship and collection burnt
- Wrote "On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type"
- Combined this with Darwin's "Origin of Species"


What are Darwin's Two Ideas?

1. Evolution explains life's unity and diversity
2. Natural selection caused adaptive evolution


What is descent with Modification?

All organisms are related through descent form an ancestor that lived in the remote past


What are Mayr's 2 observations?

1. No two individual's are exactly alike
2. Many offspring fail to survive and reproduce


What are Mayr's 2 inferences?

1. Individuals whose inherited traits give them higher probability of surviving and reproducing are likely to leave more offspring than other individual
2. The unequal ability on individual to survive and reproduce will lead to gradual change in the population with adaptive/favoured characteristic accumulating over generation


What is artificial selection?

Human modification of species


What is Darwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection?

An avalanche of evidence that integrates hugely diverse areas of biology