Evolution terminology Flashcards Preview

Grade 12 LS 2016 > Evolution terminology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Evolution terminology Deck (58):
1

study of the forms of life existing in prehistoric or geologic times, as represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms

paleontology

2

species

group of organisms of the same type that are able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, i.e. that are not reproductively isolated

3

the study of the geographical distribution of plants and animals

biogeography

3

the study of differences in chemical processes among species

comparative biochemistry

4

the comparative study of embryos of different species

comparative embryology

4

the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment

phenotype

5

continental drift

the gradual movement of the continents across the earth's surface through geological time

6

comparative biochemistry

the study of differences in chemical processes among species

6

selective breeding

(also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans breed other animals and plants for particular traits or to eliminate particular traits

6

structures that are similar in function but have different evolutionary origins, as the wings of a butterfly and the wings of a bird.

analogous structures

6

production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are genetically closely related

inbreeding

7

major evolutionary change, especially with regard to the evolution of whole taxonomic groups over long periods of time

macro-evolution

8

the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species

comparative anatomy

8

period in Earth's history when abnormally large numbers of species die out simultaneously or within a limited time frame

mass extinction

9

a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell

meiosis

10

comparative anatomy

the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species

11

paleontology

study of the forms of life existing in prehistoric or geologic times, as represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms

12

the gradual movement of the continents across the earth's surface through geological time

continental drift

13

analogous structures

structures that are similar in function but have different evolutionary origins, as the wings of a butterfly and the wings of a bird.

14

mass extinction

period in Earth's history when abnormally large numbers of species die out simultaneously or within a limited time frame

15

any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations

biological evolution

16

biological evolution

any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations

16

the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution

speciation

17

homologous structures

structures that are similar in structure, but not necessarily in function, which demonstrates descent from a common ancestor

18

macro-evolution

major evolutionary change, especially with regard to the evolution of whole taxonomic groups over long periods of time

19

the process by which different kinds of living organism are believed to have developed from earlier forms during the history of the earth

evolution

21

group of organisms of the same type that are able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, i.e. that are not reproductively isolated

species

22

production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are genetically unrelated

outbreeding

23

population

group of organisms of the same species that inhabits the same geographical area and interbreed freely

25

a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events which reduces the variation in the gene pool of a population.

genetic bottleneck

26

natural selection

the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring

27

evolutionary change within a species or small group of organisms (population), especially over a short period

micro-evolution

28

comparative embryology

the comparative study of embryos of different species

30

a set of alleles that determines the expression of a particular characteristic or trait

genotype

32

the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring

natural selection

33

biogeography

the study of the geographical distribution of plants and animals

35

the remains or impression of a prehistoric plant or animal embedded in rock and preserved in petrified form

fossil

36

(also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans breed other animals and plants for particular traits or to eliminate particular traits

selective breeding

37

group of organisms of the same species that inhabits the same geographical area and interbreed freely

population

38

anthropology

the comparative study of human societies and cultures and their development

39

archaeology

the study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains

39

structures that are similar in structure, but not necessarily in function, which demonstrates descent from a common ancestor

homologous structures

40

micro-evolution

evolutionary change within a species or small group of organisms (population), especially over a short period

42

process of fossilization in which mineral deposits form internal casts of organisms

permineralisation

43

permineralisation

process of fossilization in which mineral deposits form internal casts of organisms

44

genetic bottleneck

a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events which reduces the variation in the gene pool of a population.

46

plate tectonics

theory that explains the global distribution of geological phenomena such as volcanism and continental drift, in terms of the formation, destruction, movement, and interaction of the earth's plates

47

inbreeding

production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are genetically closely related

48

the comparative study of human societies and cultures and their development

anthropology

49

genotype

a set of alleles that determines the expression of a particular characteristic or trait

50

fossil

the remains or impression of a prehistoric plant or animal embedded in rock and preserved in petrified form

52

phenotype

the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment

53

evolution

the process by which different kinds of living organism are believed to have developed from earlier forms during the history of the earth

54

outbreeding

production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are genetically unrelated

55

the study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains

archaeology

56

theory that explains the global distribution of geological phenomena such as volcanism and continental drift, in terms of the formation, destruction, movement, and interaction of the earth's plates

plate tectonics

57

meiosis

a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell

58

speciation

the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution