EX 3 Neuro - Limbic System and Hypothalamus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EX 3 Neuro - Limbic System and Hypothalamus Deck (35):
1

This structure evaluates sensory information for familiar/important content

hippocampus

2

This is the "rolodex-like" file of the hippocampus which retrieves stored cognitive information

concept neuron

3

What is the input to the hippocampus

visual
auditory
tactile
multimodal sensory input

4

What is the output from the hippocampus

to sensory cortical areas (memory)
to mammilary body (Papez's circuit, motor response to memory)

5

This structure evaluates sensory signals as to emotional content (facial expressions, surroundings); involved with memory of social events, response of social situations, and anxiety

amygdala

6

What is the input to the amygdala

primary sensory input
cerebral cortex, especially orbitofrontal cortex
cingulate and insular cortices

7

What is the output from the amygdala

hypthalamus and brainstem
autonomic responses
panic with PAG
orbitofrontal cortex; anxiety to consciousness
cingulate and insular cortices

8

What is kluver-bucy syndrome

seen following bilateral temporal pole removal

9

What are the symptoms of kluver-bucy

compulsive manipulation of objects
insatiable appetite
sexual exhibitionsism
amnesia
loss of aggressive behavior

10

What is the function of the Papez circuit

to link the hippocampus to cingulate cortex

11

What is the path of the Papez circuit

hippocampal formation
fornix
mammilary body
mammilothalamic tract
anterior nucleus of thalamus
cingulate cortex (selection of motor response)
cingulum
entorhinal cortex (and back again)

12

What will be the effect of damage to the hippocampus

inability to remember
"where am I"
"how do I get home"
causes anterograde and retrograde amnesia; failure to make new memories or recall old memories

13

What is the neuroanatomical basis of procedural memory

striatum and basal ganglia communicate to process this memory or a certain procedure (tie does, zip a zipper, etc.)

14

What type of amnesia can be induced involving procedural memory

expertise-induced amnesia; performing a task so many times that details aren't vivid/recallable; not remembering if you locked your door before you left

15

What is the neuroanatomical basis of declarative memory

hippocampus; retaining and recalling episodic memories, creating new declarative memories (name, fun facts, experiences, etc.)

16

What are grid cells

like a map of the environment; visual, auditory, and tactile clues

17

Where are grid cells found

entorhinal cortex
adjacent parahippocampal and perirhinal cortex

18

What are place cells

give cognitive representation of specific location within a given space; animals place is centered within a restricted environment; monitor action of head direction cells

19

Where are place cells found

hippocampus

20

What effect does Alzheimer's disease have on the hippocampus

causes cell loss to hippocampal formation; disconnects input/output paths

21

Stimulation of the amygdala in the human will produce what emotion

anxiety or fear; stimulation of only the left amygdala can cause happiness OR anxiety/fear

22

The amygdala is responsible for the storage and recall of what aspect of memory

memory of social events
autonomic and somatic responses to social situations

23

Stimulation of the nucleus accumbens will produce what emotion

feelings of pleasure and reward due to release of dopamine

24

How is nucleus accumbens involved in addiction

high levels of dopamine cause an increase in receptor sites therefore requiring a stronger surge to replicate usual pleasure

25

What is the medial pain system

functions in the appreciation and control of subjective aspects of pain

26

What are the components of the medial pain system

medial thalamus to cingulate cortex, insular cortex

27

What is the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in processing pain signals

selects autonomic response appropriate to ongoing emotions

28

What is the role of the midcingulate cortex in processing pain signals

selects somatic response appropriate to ongoing emotions

29

What is the function go the insular cortex in relation to pain

top-down suppression (controls reaction to physical/emotional pain)

30

What are two major coerces of fibers to the hypothalamus

input from brainstem, retina, and limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala)

31

"Jet lag" can be reset by action within which hypothalamic nucleus

suprachiasmatic nucleus; stimulated by light cycles

32

What are the two hypothalamic nuclei which produce ADH and oxytocin

supraoptic nuclei
paraventricular nuclei

33

A lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus will have what effect on appetite

voracious appetite

34

What is the relationship between the hypothalamus, the anterior and posterior pituitary, and the adrenal gland

forms the HPA axis
controls reactions to stress
regulates digestion, immunity, mood, emotions, energy storage/usafe

35

What neurotransmitter facilitates both uterine contractions during childbirth and milk let-down during nursing

oxytocin