Ex. Phys. Training Theory and Exercise Adaptations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ex. Phys. Training Theory and Exercise Adaptations Deck (86):
1

fitness dimensions

muscular adaptations
-muscular strength
-muscular endurance
-muscular power
-muscular hypertrophy
metabolic adaptations
-aerobic power (cardiorespiratory endurance)
-anaerobic power (anaerobic work capacity)
flexibility

2

muscular strength
-what is it?
-measured via

the maximum force that can be generated from a muscle in a single effort
measured via
-1-repetition maximum
-force plates
no time component

3

muscular endurance
-what is it?
-adaptations
-measured via

the ability to perform repeated, high-intensity contractions or to sustain a single, high-intensity contraction (wall sit) for a long period of time
adaptations in muscular endurance are generally confined to a specific muscle group
measured via
-times or maximal rep tests

4

muscular power
-what is it?
-calculation
-measured via
-force x distance =

the rate of work performed by a muscle
calculated using the following equation
-power = (force x distance) / time
think of force as muscular strength and distance/time as speed
measured via
-isokinetic dynamometers
-motion analsis
-vertical jump
force x distance = work

5

muscular hypertrophy

the girth (or increasing girth) of a muscle
measured via
-measuring tapes
-lean body mass (LBM) estimates
-muscle biopsies

6

aerobic power (cardiorespiratory endurance)
-what is it
-another way to define it
-measured via

entire body's ability to perform prolonged, large muscle dynamic exercise at a moderate-high intensity
this also can be considered the body's ability to generate ATP via mitochondrial respiration
adaptations in aerobic power generally affect the whole body
measured via
-VO2max

7

anaerobic power (anaerobic work capacity)
-what is it
-difference from anaerobic capacity
-measured via

the amount of mechanical work performed using primarily an ATP yield derived from anaerobic energy systems (immediate system and glycolysis)
different than anaerobic capacity, which is the maximum amount of ATP production from anaerobic energy systems
measured via
-wingate
-critical power tests
-maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD)

8

flexibility
-what is it?
-measured via

the ability to move joint throughout their full range of motion (ROM)
measured via
-goniometry and/or joint specific "functional" tests

9

principles of exercise training

progressive overload
specificity
individuality
reversibility
FITT
hard/easy

10

progressive overload
-what is it?
-based on

placing increasing amounts of stress on the body will elicit adaptations that improve fitness
-exemplified by the legend of Milo
based on Hans Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
-in response to a stressor, the body responds in three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

11

legend of Milo

5th C greek wrestler
had a baby bull
bull got bigger
-when Olympics came, he carried the adult bull on his back into the arena

12

specificity
-what is it
-example
-this is the foundation of

the body will adapt to a particular type and amount of stress imposed on it
for instance, performing aerobic exercise will not likely improve muscular strength, nor will stretching improve VO2max
this is the foundation of "functional training"

13

individuality

some people readily show improvements in response to a particular form of exercise (responders) whereas some people do not (non-responders)

14

reversibility

fitness adaptations are lost when the exercise demands placed on the body are lowered

15

FITT
-time and type relationship

acronym to guide exercise prescription
F = frequency of exercise sessions
I = intensity of each exercise session
T = time, duration, or volume of each exercise session
T = type or mode of exercise performed
choose type first
time and type are inverse

16

hard/easy

hard exercise stresses your body
-starts the alarm phase, which allows the other 2 phases to occur
easy exercise facilitates recovery

17

aerobic training general training recommendations

> or equal to 3 sessions per week
> or equal to 60% of VO2max or 60-80% HRR (heart rate reserve)
-max HR - bottom HR
-0.8 x HRR = #
> 20 minutes per session
any mode of exercise that permits the above recommendations

18

aerobic training neuromuscular recruitment

improved motor unit syncing
-developing motor program (ice skating, as he practices he only turns on certain motor units at specific times)
co-activation of muscles
-how you fire groups of muscles together
-ice skating: turns on all muscles in a group when he only needs a few muscles in a group
reciprocal inhibition
-as you utilize the stretch reflex during the coactivation of muscles, the antagonistic muscle turns off

19

muscle fiber changes

many type IIx --> type IIa
-in response to aerobic training, they transition to better suit aerobic needs
increased size and function of type I and type IIa
increased myoglobin content (esp. type I)
increased mitochondria (esp. type I)

20

aerobic training metabolism

increased oxidative enzyme activity
increased VO2max
increased lactate threshold
decreased resting and submax RER
-lipids: 0.8
-carbs: 0.9

21

aerobic training cardiac function

left ventricular hypertrophy (not as much as seen with RT)
-myocardium thickens
improved HR recovery
decreased resting HR and submax HR; max HR unaffected
-due to increased PSNS activity
increased resting, submax, and max SV
unaffected resting and submax Q; increased max Q

22

aerobic training circulation

increased capillary density (especially in type I fibers)
-focus of base training in runners
greater dilation of existing capillaries
-EDRF production is increased as a result of metabolic factors
improved blood distribution
increased blood volume
-both for plasma volume and RBC volume
decreased resting and submax SBP/DBP

23

aerobic training respiratory system

decreased submax VE (100 L to 90 L at 100 W), increased max VE (200 W and 175 L to 225 W to 200 L

24

aerobic training exercise performance

increased aerobic power
improved submaximal endurance capacity
decreased metabolic cost for submaximal workloads
-6 kcal/min to 5 kcal/min

25

resistance training general training recommendations

F: > or equal to 2 NON-CONSECUTIVE sessions per week (worked muscles require at least 24-48 hrs rest after each session)
I: > or equal to 60-70X 1-RM (for all around, but not optimal, improvements in muscle performance)
T: 8-10 exercises, each with 1-3 sets x 8-15 reps, with 1 minute between sets (for all around improvements)
T: isotonic resisted movement

26

muscle endurance training recommendations

moderate-large volume
low-moderate intensity sets and reps with little recovery between sets
-12-25 reps
-2-3 sets
<65% 1-RM
-<0.5 min
focus of workout is to stress the muscles continuously

27

muscle hypertrophy training recommendations

goal is to break muscles down
large volume
moderate intensity sets and reps with low-moderate recovery between sets
-65-85%
-3-6 sets
-6-12 reps
-0.5-1.5 min
focus on workout is to put in a lot of work

28

muscle strength training recommendations

low-moderate volume
high intensity sets and reps with full recovery between sets
->85%
-2-6 sets
-<6 reps
-2-5 min
focus of workout is on training the muscle to produce maximal force

29

muscle power training recommendations

low volume
highest intensity (not to be confused with heaviest resistance) with full recovery between sets
-55-75%
--shown to optimize power output
-2-6 sets
-<6 reps
-2-5 min

30

special types of resistance training

isometric training
eccentric training
plyometric training
circuit training
electrical stimulation

31

isometric training

greater increases in muscular strength than isotonic training, but strength is confined to limited ROM

32

eccentric training

huge increases in muscle hypertrophy and strength, but also huge damage to the muscle, which necessitates lower volume, more rest between sessions, and judicious integration into workouts

33

plyometric training

great increases in muscle power, but also big damage to the muscle due to eccentric loading
-need to utilize stretch-shortening cycle
acclimate patient to plyometric training
-start with strength training

34

circuit training

involves performing multiple resistance exercises in succession with little to no rest between exercises
typically, there is an increased aerobic component to this type of training, thus some low-moderate aerobic exercise adaptations are seen in conjunction with moderate resistance exercise adaptations

35

electrical stimulation

involves contraction of muscle via exogenous electrical stimulation of motor nerve
no evidence to suggest that it is an effective technique for healthy people, but it might be helpful in clinical situations

36

resistance training neuromuscular recruitment

improved motor unit syncing
-gym strength vs real world strength
increased motor unit recruitment
-use type IIx
improved rate coding
-higher levels to improve force output
co-activation of muscles
more efficient reciprocal inhibition (maybe)
-more with repeated exercises
reduced autogenic inhibition (maybe)
-teach GTOs how to handle higher force outputs

37

resistance training muscular strength
-muscular hypertrophy

early gains in muscular strength are typically attributed to neuromuscular recruitment
later gains are due to anatomical/physiological changes within the muscle fibers
muscular hypertrophy may improve strength, but it's not the sole predictor
-hypertrophy is partly due to increased water content in muscle fiber

38

resistance training muscle hypertrophy

transient vs. chronic changes
hypertrophy likely due to
-increased # of myofilament and/or myofibrils within fiber
-increased sarcoplasm and cellular contents
-increased thickness of connective tissues
hyperplasia (increasing # of muscle fibers) has not been documented in humans, but has been documented in rodents

39

resistance training muscle fiber changes

some Type IIx --> Type IIa
increased size and function of Type IIx, Type IIa, and Type I

40

resistance training metabolism

increased immediate and glycolytic enzyme activity during exercise
increased mitochondrial respiration at rest
-EPOC
no change in VO2max for traditional resistance training
-possibly an increase with circuit training
increased lactate threshold?
-circuits
increased storage and utilization of CrP and glycogen

41

resistance training cardiac function

left ventricular hypertrophy (could be mild to extreme)
unaffected resting, submax, and max HR
unaffected resting, submax, and max SV
unaffected resting, submax, and max Q

42

resistance training circulation

greater dilation of existing capillaries
improved blood distribution
decreased resting SBP/DBP

43

resistance training respiratory system

no notable changes have been recorded with whole body resistance training, but...
respiratory muscle training (i.e. resistance training for the respiratory muscles) has been shown to
-increase respiratory muscle strength and endurance
-increase FVC
-increase TLC

44

resistance training exercise performance

depends on how you're training
increased muscle strength
increased muscle endurance
increased muscle power
increased muscle hypertrophy
increased anaerobic power?

45

anaerobic training general training recommendations

3-4 sessions per week
> or equal to 100% of VO2max (typically all out depending on interval length)
3-10 intervals of 5-30 seconds each with full rest (W:R = 1:5-6) between intervals
any mode of exercise that permits all out activity (i.e. cycling, running, swimming)
increases anaerobic power

46

anaerobic training neuromuscular recruitment

same adaptations as resistance training
improved motor unit syncing
-gym strength vs real world strength
increased motor unit recruitment
-use type IIx
improved rate coding
-higher levels to improve force output
co-activation of muscles
more efficient reciprocal inhibition (maybe)
-more with repeated exercises
reduced autogenic inhibition (maybe)
-teach GTOs how to handle higher force outputs

47

anaerobic training muscle fiber changes

some Type IIx --> Type IIa
increased size and function of Type IIa and Type IIx
decreased Type I size and function
-depends on the mode (type)
-depends on force/velocity curve
--long-distance biker vs long-distance runner

48

anaerobic training metabolism

increased immediate, glycolytic, and oxidative enzyme activity during exercise
no change or a small increase in VO2max
-depends on interval length
lactate threshold
-depends on interval length
-longer intervals tax better
increased storage and utilization of CrP and glycogen

49

anaerobic training cardiac function
-simply what is provided in the literature
-not wholly applicable or generalizable

decreased resting HR and submax HR, max HR unaffected
improved HR recovery
unaffected resting, submax, and max SV
-may change similar to aerobic training
unaffected resting, submax, and max Q
-may change similar to aerobic training

50

anaerobic training criculation

same adaptations as resistance training

51

anaerobic training respiratory system

increased respiratory muscle strength and endurance

52

anaerobic training exercise performance

increased aerobic power
increased anaerobic power
decreased fatigue index
increased muscle power
improved metabolic cost for submaximal workloads
increased muscle strength
-depends on mode

53

flexibility training general training recommendations to improve flexibility

2-3 sessions per week (for each muscle group)
hold stretches to the point of mild discomfort; progress stretch as necessary during each rep to maintain this intensity
15-30 sec per rep, 2-4 reps per muscle group
static, active stretching with passive assistance at the end of ROM or PNF stretching combo

54

flexibility general training recommendations to improve performance

right before exercise or sport performance
ROM should not extend beyond point of mild discomfort, muscular activity should not feel higher than "moderate" intensity
time depends on the drill
active, dynamic stretching drills

55

types of stretching

passive
active

56

passive

involves an external force to move joint through its ROM

57

active

involves contraction of agonist muscles to move a joint through its ROM to stretch target muscle/muscle group

58

techniques of stretching

static
ballistic
dynamic
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)

59

static

slowly moving into a stretch and holding it for a specified time interval

60

ballistic

stretching a muscle suddenly in a "bouncy" movement to force a joint past its normal ROM

61

dynamic

moving a joint through its ROM in a controlled manner

62

PNF

manipulates GTOs and muscle spindles to effectively stretch a muscle

63

special types of flexibility training

yoga
pilates

64

yoga

the term in Western culture often implies a form of exercise that utilizes several postures which improve muscular strength, _____, endurance and flexibility
in actuality, yoga is intended to be much more than just physical exercise, combining spiritual and mental domains as well

65

pilates

like yoga in Western culture, pilates exercises are used mostly to improve muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and posture

66

flexibility neuromuscular recruitment (depending on type of stretching)

improved motor unit syncing (maybe)
increased motor unit recruiment (maybe)
improved rate coding (maybe)
co-activation of muscles (maybe)
"re-tuned" muscle spindles and GTOs
-all stretching
all maybe's refer to dynamic/active stretching

67

flexibility muscle fiber changes

no changes expected, unless flexibility routine induces an exercise stimulus similar to aerobic, resistance, or anaerobic training

68

flexibility metabolism

no changes expected, unless flexibility routine induces an exercise stimulus similar to aerobic, resistance, or anaerobic training

69

flexibility cardiac function

no changes expected, unless flexibility routine induces an exercise stimulus similar to aerobic, resistance, or anaerobic training

70

flexibility circulation

no changes expected, unless flexibility routine induces an exercise stimulus similar to aerobic, resistance, or anaerobic training

71

flexibility respiratory system

no changes expected, unless flexibility routine induces an exercise stimulus similar to aerobic, resistance, or anaerobic training

72

flexibility exercise performance

increased joint ROM (when performed to improve flexibility)
increased muscle power (when performed to improve performance)

73

detraining/immobilization

muscular atrophy occurs
-significant atrophy can occur w/in 6 hours
muscular strength decreases
-3-4% decrease per day
protein synthesis decreases
all fiber type decrease function

74

training theory

well-designed training programs should incorporate all of the fitness principles aforementioned, especially progressive overload, specificity, and FITT
the incorporation of these elements often falls under the umbrella of preiodization

75

periodization

planned variations in exercise that cumulatively improve fitness and performance

76

typical phases of periodization

macrocycle (a year)
shorter mesocycles (months)
-hypertrophy, strength, power
microcycles (weeks or days)

77

three main programming elements of periodization

volume
intensity
technique
within each phase, volume generally decreases while intensity increases because the two are inversely related

78

linear (classical) periodization

involves a fairly progressive "taper" toward peak performance at the end of the macrocycle using a specific sequence of mesocycles

79

non-linear (undulating) periodization

incorporates multiple "tapers" into the fitness progression to optimize performance at multiple times during the macrocycle

80

additional concepts related to periodization

undertraining
acute overload
overreaching
overtraining
tapering/peaking

81

undertraining

easy training that elicits minor improvements, if any
typically performed during active rest mesocycles (or when life demands don't allow you to train as much as you'd like)

82

acute overload

an average training load that elicits appreciable improvements in physiological function and performance
typically performed during the early-middle mesocycles of training within a competitive macrocycle (represented) by the off-season, and in-season in may sports

83

overreaching

a brief period of heavy training that overloads the body without optimal rest and recovery
physiological function and performance decline initially, but with adequate rest and recovery thereafter, both can improve substantially
-typically preformed prior in the late middle, and late mesocycles of training (represented by the post-season in many sports)
precedes a taper
adding undertraining can speed up recovery following taxing workout

84

overtraining
-chronically
-most common symptom

a training load that is too substantial given the provided rest and recovery
chronically, this type of load will lead to overtraining syndrome, which is characterized by decreased physiological function and performance
-most common symptom of overtraining is fatigue

85

tapering/peaking

a period of reduced training load to facilitate rest, recovery, and physiological adaptations that will improve performance
-typically performed near the end of mesocycles or the macrocycle when maximum performance is desired

86

common sense points

current fitness level dictates the extent of improvements that can be realized
the relationship between the type of movement and energy systems used dictates
-what a person can physiologically accomplish in a workout
-how an individual workout is designed
-how an exercise program is planned
-how much rest and recovery should be taken