EX1 Antibodies/Complement/Diversity - Quan Flashcards Preview

SP14 Microbiology > EX1 Antibodies/Complement/Diversity - Quan > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX1 Antibodies/Complement/Diversity - Quan Deck (40):
1

antibodies bind a _____ of antigenic structures, able to discriminate ____ antigens, bind antigen with ______ strength, and able to recognize antigen in its ______ form

variety
similar
great
native

2

The overall mission of an antibody is the ______ _____ _____

neutralize target antigen

3

antibodies are used for ________ via tagging microbial organisms or infected cells for phagocytosis

opsonization

4

antibodies are used for ______ ______ via recruiting complement system to destroy microbial organisms or infected cells

complement fixation

5

antibodies are used for _____ ____ via binding toxins in the blood and tissue to facilitate the removal of the toxins

direct neutralization

6

Ig____ is the major iG in serum and ___-___% of all Igs, it provides ______ immunity, plays a role in immunological _____, and it has a _____ structure

IgG
70-75%
neonatal
memory
basic

7

Ig___ is less than ___% of all circulating Igs, is a major component of ___ cell surface Ig (__CR)

IgD
1
B
B-cell receptor (BCR)

8

Ig____ is very ___ in serum, found of the surface of _____ and ____ cells, important for killing ______, and contributes to ______

E
scarce
basophils and mast cells
parasites
allergy

9

Ig_____ is secreted in saliva, the receptor transports it across ____ _____, and is usually assembled as a ______

A
mucosal epithelium
dimer

10

Ig____ is about ___% of total Igs, it has a ______ structure, can serve as a _____, and is the _____ antibody secreted in response to the initial antigenic challenge

M
10
pentameric
BCR
first

11

The central component of the complement family is ____

C3

12

The later components of the complement family are _____

C5-9

13

_______ of complement molecules are the active complements

fragments

14

In order for complement to be activated, the masking of the _____ _____ is removed via ____ _____

active site
proteolytic cleavage

15

In opsonization and cell activation complement fragments (C___, C___, and C___) coat the ______ of a target, the ______ cells bind to the target, and ______ occurs

C3b, iC3b, C4b
surface
immune
phagocytosis

16

In chemotaxis, small fragments of complements (C___ and C___) form a ______ _____, this stimulates _____ to moves (toward/away) from the site of infection

C3a and C5a
concentration gradient
immune
toward

17

In lysis of target cells complement activation (C__) results in the assembly of ____ ____ _____

C5b
membrane attack complexes (MAC)

18

A MAC will insert itself into the lipid bilayers and form a large ______ on the cell membrane which causes cell _____

hole
lysis

19

Antibody-antigen complexes containing ____ or _____ activate the classical pathway

IgM or IgG1-3

20

Terminal _____ groups (on the microbial surface) activate the lectin pathway

mannose

21

Microbial ___ ____ activate the alternative pathway

cell walls

22

The _____ pathway uses various stages of C____, of which are cleaved by C___ _____

alternative
C3
C3 convertase

23

C____ is the adapter for the _____ pathway

C1
classical

24

free antibodies (do/do not) engage C1; there (is/is not) selective engagement by classical pathway activation, ______-_____ antibodies activate C1

do not
is
tissue-bound

25

In the classical pathway activated C___ cleave C2 and C4 to form C_____ (which is the classical C__ _____);C _____ is the classical C___ _______

C1
C4b2a
C3 convertase
C4b2a3b
C5 convertase

26

Main differences between the alternative/classical pathway are; in the alternative pathway C3 undergoes ________ breakdown; and in the classical pathway it uses ____

spontaneous (C1 causes cleavage of C3s)
C1 (alternative pathway predominately uses forms of C3, no C1)

27

_____ is required for the initiation of the MAC complex; of which is made up of _____

C5b
C5b-C9

28

The antibody has a F___ light chain and a F__ heavy chain, of which is anchored to the cell membrane

Fab
Fc

29

True or False
antibodies can be used over and over, many times

False; an antibody can only be used once

30

The combination of ________ ______ _____ on the heavy and light chains constitute the antigen binding sites on Igs

complementarity-determining regions

31

Via the ______ theory of antibody diversity, cells respond to antigen by _____ the shapes of the antigen and make antibodies according

instructive
imprinting

32

Via the _______ theory of antibody diversity, antibody diversity is _____ generated, if over _____ types of antibodies can be pre-made, then a sufficient army is constituted; problems --> not enough ____

selective
randomly
10^7
genes

33

The antibodies expressed in mature B cells are _____ and _____

membrane IgM and IgD

34

specific antibodies are generated by ______ and ______ of different __ and ___ segments of the iG gene

deletion and recombination
V and C

35

____ ____ DNA is DNA which is passed down through the gametes before it is modified by somatic recombination or maturation

germ line

36

________ cells contain germ line DNA

pro-B (bone marrow stem cells)

37

The gene loci for Ig production in pro-B cells are non-functional due to lack of _____ ____ _____

open reading frame

38

There are 7 mechanism for antibody diversity;
1. multiple germ lime ___ genes
2. _-_ and _-_-_ recombination
3. recombination _______
4. _______ addition
5. somatic _____
6. assorted ____ and _____ combination
7. ______ switching

V
V-D and V-D-J
inaccuracies
N-nucleotide
mutation
heavy and light chain
class

39

T cell receptors (are/are not) develop in a similar way to B cell receptors

are

40

T cells mature in the _______ and B cells mature in the ______

thymus
bone marrow