Flashcards in Ex.1-Chapter 1, The Human Body: An Orientation Deck (57):
What is Anatomy?
The study of the structures of the body and their relationships. "What it is, what it does"
What is Physiology?
The study of the functions of the body. "How it does it"
**What is the difference between anatomy and physiology?
Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body parts, while physiology is the study of the functions of the body parts.
**What are the subdivisions of Anatomy? (5)
Gross (macroscopic) anatomy- can see with the naked eye
Regional anatomy- whole leg, etc.
Systemic anatomy- organ systems
Surface anatomy- can see visually
Microscopic anatomy- histology and cytology
**What are the (3) specialized branches of anatomy?
Pathological anatomy, radiographic anatomy and molecular biology
**What is Pathological anatomy?
A medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease (changes due to disease)
**What is Radiographic anatomy?
(x-ray anatomy) involves the study of anatomy through the use of radiographic films
**What are the two subdivisions of Microscopic Anatomy?
Histology- study of tissues
Cytology- study of cells
**What is Molecular biology?
The branch of biology that deals with the structure and function of the macromolecules (e.g., proteins and nucleic acids) essential to life.
**What is the principal of complementarity?
States that function is dependent on structure, and that the form of a structure relates to its function. "Something in the body can only do what its formed or designed to do"
**What are the (6) structural levels of the human body?
Cellular- "smallest unit of life"
Organ- 2 or more tissues working together
Organ System- 2 or more organs
Organismal- all systems functioning together
**What are the (12) body systems?
What are the components of the Integumentary System?
Hair, Skin, Nails
What is the function of the Integumentary System?
1. Covering and Protection
2. Chemical Synthesis (vitamin d)
4. Temperature Regulation (98.6 degrees Fahrenheit or 37 degrees Celsius)
What are the components of the Skeletal System?
Bones, Cartilages, Ligaments, and Joints
What is the function of the Skeletal System?
1. Protection and Support (muscles and skin)
2. Framework (for cavities)
3. Blood and cell production (bone marrow)
4. Mineral Storage (calcium and phosphate)
What are the components of the Muscular System?
Skeletal Muscles (NOT smooth or cardiac)
What is the function of the Muscular System?
1. Manipulate environment
3. Facial expression and posture
4. Produces body heat.
What are the components of the Nervous System?
Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerves
What is the function of the Nervous System?
1. Control of the body
2. Respond to stimuli (acting on or within the body)
3. Activate effector organs (e.g. glands & muscles)
What are the components of the Endocrine System?
1. Pineal gland (brain)
2. Pituitary gland (connected to brain)
3.Thyroid gland (front of the neck)
4. Thymus Gland (above Sternum)
5. Adrenal gland (top of kidneys)
6. Pancreas (abdomen)
7. Testis and ovaries.
What is the function of the Endocrine System?
1. Regulation of growth
What are the components of the Cardiovascular System?
Heart and blood vessels
What is the function of the Cardiovascular System?
Transportation of blood (nutrients, waste and gasses)
What are the components of the Lymphatic System?
2. lymphatic vessels
4. lymph nodes
5. red bone marrow
What is the function of the Lymphatic System?
1. Return of leaked fluid from blood
2.disposal of debris
What are the components of the Respiratory System?
Nasal cavity, pharynx (throat), Larynx (voice box), trachea, bronchus, lung.
What is the function of the Respiratory System?
Gas exchange between blood, tissues and external environment.
What are the components of the Digestive System?
Oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, rectum, anus.
What is the function of the Digestive System?
1. breakdown food
2. absorption of nutrients
3. elimination of indigestible foodstuff.
What are the components of the Urinary System?
Kidney, ureter (tube to bladder), urinary bladder, urethra
What is the function of the Urinary System?
1. Elimination of nitrogenous waste
2. regulation of pH, water and electrolytes
3. mineral balance.
What are the components of the Male Reproductive System?
Testis, ductus deferens, accessory glands, penis
What is the function of the Male Reproductive System?
Offspring (sperm), and sex hormones
What are the components of the Female Reproductive System?
Ovary, uterine tube, uterus, vagina, mammary gland
What is the function of the Female Reproductive System?
Offspring (ovum), and sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)
What is homeostasis?
equilibrium of the internal environment. All systems contribute to homeostasis, but the nervous and endocrine systems are most important. Homeostasis is necessary for health.
What are the components of homeostasis?
Receptor- senses stimuli, sending the info to the control center and effector.
Control Center- (generally the brain) signals an effector to respond to the stimuli
Effector- Muscles, organs glands
What are the two internal body cavities?
Ventral (front or anterior) and Dorsal (back or posterior)
What are the subdivisions of the Ventral body cavity?
Thoracic and Abdominopelvic
Which structures are in the thoracic cavity?
Pleural- house the lungs
Mediastinum- middle under sternum
Pericardial- houses the heart
Which structures are in the abdominopelvic cavity?
Abdominal- intestines, spleen, liver, stomach, etc.
Pelvic- Bladder, repro organs, and rectum
Are the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities continuous or separated?
Separated by the diaphragm
What are the subdivisions of the dorsal cavity
Cranial- protects the brain
and Vertebral (spinal)- protects spinal cord
Are the cranial and vertebral cavities continuous or separated?
The walls of the ventral body cavities and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered in a thin, double-layered membrane called?
Serosa or serous membrane
The part of the serous membrane that lines the walls of the cavity is called?
Parietal serosa, (parie=wall)
The part of the serous membrane that covers the organs in the cavity is called?
The serous membranes in a cavity are separated not by air but by a thin layer of lubricating fluid, called?
Serous fluid, which is secreted by both membranes
The serous fluid does what?
Friction reducing, allows organs to slide without friction across the cavity walls and one another as they carry out their routine functions. Especially important for mobile organs such as the pumping heart.
Name of the serous membrane that lines the pericardial cavity?
Name of the serous membrane that lines the heart?
Name of the serous membrane that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity?
Name of the serous membrane that covers the lungs?
Name of the serous membrane that lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity?
Name of the serous membrane that covers most of the organs within the abdominopelvic cavity?