Ex.1-Chapter 1, The Human Body: An Orientation Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy > Ex.1-Chapter 1, The Human Body: An Orientation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ex.1-Chapter 1, The Human Body: An Orientation Deck (57):
1

What is Anatomy?

The study of the structures of the body and their relationships. "What it is, what it does"

2

What is Physiology?

The study of the functions of the body. "How it does it"

3

**What is the difference between anatomy and physiology?

Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body parts, while physiology is the study of the functions of the body parts.

4

**What are the subdivisions of Anatomy? (5)

Gross (macroscopic) anatomy- can see with the naked eye
Regional anatomy- whole leg, etc.
Systemic anatomy- organ systems
Surface anatomy- can see visually
Microscopic anatomy- histology and cytology

5

**What are the (3) specialized branches of anatomy?

Pathological anatomy, radiographic anatomy and molecular biology

6

**What is Pathological anatomy?

A medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease (changes due to disease)

7

**What is Radiographic anatomy?

(x-ray anatomy) involves the study of anatomy through the use of radiographic films

8

**What are the two subdivisions of Microscopic Anatomy?

Histology- study of tissues
Cytology- study of cells

9

**What is Molecular biology?

The branch of biology that deals with the structure and function of the macromolecules (e.g., proteins and nucleic acids) essential to life.

10

**What is the principal of complementarity?

States that function is dependent on structure, and that the form of a structure relates to its function. "Something in the body can only do what its formed or designed to do"

11

**What are the (6) structural levels of the human body?

Chemical-molecular
Cellular- "smallest unit of life"
Tissue
Organ- 2 or more tissues working together
Organ System- 2 or more organs
Organismal- all systems functioning together

12

**What are the (12) body systems?

Integumentary
Muscular
Skeletal
Nervous
Endocrine
Cardiovascular
Lymphatic
Respiratory
Digestive
Urinary
Male Reproductive
Female Reproductive

13

What are the components of the Integumentary System?

Hair, Skin, Nails

14

What is the function of the Integumentary System?

1. Covering and Protection
2. Chemical Synthesis (vitamin d)
3. Sensory
4. Temperature Regulation (98.6 degrees Fahrenheit or 37 degrees Celsius)

15

What are the components of the Skeletal System?

Bones, Cartilages, Ligaments, and Joints

16

What is the function of the Skeletal System?

1. Protection and Support (muscles and skin)
2. Framework (for cavities)
3. Blood and cell production (bone marrow)
4. Mineral Storage (calcium and phosphate)

17

What are the components of the Muscular System?

Skeletal Muscles (NOT smooth or cardiac)

18

What is the function of the Muscular System?

1. Manipulate environment
2. Locomotion
3. Facial expression and posture
4. Produces body heat.

19

What are the components of the Nervous System?

Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerves

20

What is the function of the Nervous System?

1. Control of the body
2. Respond to stimuli (acting on or within the body)
3. Activate effector organs (e.g. glands & muscles)

21

What are the components of the Endocrine System?

1. Pineal gland (brain)
2. Pituitary gland (connected to brain)
3.Thyroid gland (front of the neck)
4. Thymus Gland (above Sternum)
5. Adrenal gland (top of kidneys)
6. Pancreas (abdomen)
7. Testis and ovaries.

22

What is the function of the Endocrine System?

1. Regulation of growth
2. Reproduction
3. Metabolism

23

What are the components of the Cardiovascular System?

Heart and blood vessels

24

What is the function of the Cardiovascular System?

Transportation of blood (nutrients, waste and gasses)

25

What are the components of the Lymphatic System?

1..Thymus
2. lymphatic vessels
3. spleen
4. lymph nodes
5. red bone marrow

26

What is the function of the Lymphatic System?

1. Return of leaked fluid from blood
2.disposal of debris
3. immunity.

27

What are the components of the Respiratory System?

Nasal cavity, pharynx (throat), Larynx (voice box), trachea, bronchus, lung.

28

What is the function of the Respiratory System?

Gas exchange between blood, tissues and external environment.

29

What are the components of the Digestive System?

Oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, rectum, anus.

30

What is the function of the Digestive System?

1. breakdown food
2. absorption of nutrients
3. elimination of indigestible foodstuff.

31

What are the components of the Urinary System?

Kidney, ureter (tube to bladder), urinary bladder, urethra

32

What is the function of the Urinary System?

1. Elimination of nitrogenous waste
2. regulation of pH, water and electrolytes
3. mineral balance.

33

What are the components of the Male Reproductive System?

Testis, ductus deferens, accessory glands, penis

34

What is the function of the Male Reproductive System?

Offspring (sperm), and sex hormones

35

What are the components of the Female Reproductive System?

Ovary, uterine tube, uterus, vagina, mammary gland

36

What is the function of the Female Reproductive System?

Offspring (ovum), and sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)

37

What is homeostasis?

equilibrium of the internal environment. All systems contribute to homeostasis, but the nervous and endocrine systems are most important. Homeostasis is necessary for health.

38

What are the components of homeostasis?

Receptor- senses stimuli, sending the info to the control center and effector.
Control Center- (generally the brain) signals an effector to respond to the stimuli
Effector- Muscles, organs glands

39

What are the two internal body cavities?

Ventral (front or anterior) and Dorsal (back or posterior)

40

What are the subdivisions of the Ventral body cavity?

Thoracic and Abdominopelvic

41

Which structures are in the thoracic cavity?

Pleural- house the lungs
Mediastinum- middle under sternum
Pericardial- houses the heart

42

Which structures are in the abdominopelvic cavity?

Abdominal- intestines, spleen, liver, stomach, etc.
Pelvic- Bladder, repro organs, and rectum

43

Are the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities continuous or separated?

Separated by the diaphragm

44

What are the subdivisions of the dorsal cavity

Cranial- protects the brain
and Vertebral (spinal)- protects spinal cord

45

Are the cranial and vertebral cavities continuous or separated?

Continuous (connected)

46

The walls of the ventral body cavities and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered in a thin, double-layered membrane called?

Serosa or serous membrane

47

The part of the serous membrane that lines the walls of the cavity is called?

Parietal serosa, (parie=wall)

48

The part of the serous membrane that covers the organs in the cavity is called?

Visceral Serosa

49

The serous membranes in a cavity are separated not by air but by a thin layer of lubricating fluid, called?

Serous fluid, which is secreted by both membranes

50

The serous fluid does what?

Friction reducing, allows organs to slide without friction across the cavity walls and one another as they carry out their routine functions. Especially important for mobile organs such as the pumping heart.

51

Name of the serous membrane that lines the pericardial cavity?

Parietal pericardium

52

Name of the serous membrane that lines the heart?

Visceral pericardium

53

Name of the serous membrane that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity?

Parietal pleurae

54

Name of the serous membrane that covers the lungs?

Visceral pleurae

55

Name of the serous membrane that lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity?

Parietal peritoneum

56

Name of the serous membrane that covers most of the organs within the abdominopelvic cavity?

Visceral peritoneum

57

What are the nine regions of the abdominopelvic?

Umbilical, Epigastric, Hypogastric, Right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, left lumbar, right iliac (inguinal) and left iliac (inguinal)