EX2 Bacterial Infection and Bacterial Surface Structures - Bailey Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EX2 Bacterial Infection and Bacterial Surface Structures - Bailey Deck (68):
1

These must have oxygen to grow

strict aerobes

2

These cannot tolerate oxygen

obligate anaerobes

3

The can grow with or without oxygen (most medically important)

facultative anaerobes

4

These can grow with limited nutrients

oligotrophs

5

These require some oxygen, but lower levels of oxygen

microaerophiles

6

These grow will in mild temps (15-45°C)

mesophiles

7

What structure does the gram stain adhere to

murein = peptidoglycan

8

Which gram bacteria has a thick Murein layer and stains a dark purple/blue

gram +

9

What is the structure of Murein

N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine chains cross linked via peptide bonds

10

What will recognize peptidoglycan

PRRs

11

What is the biosynthesis of Murein

NAG and NAM synthesied in the cytoplasm, then link into a chain and then shuttled to the periplasm, then it is cross-linked via a peptide bond

12

This is found only on gram positive bacteria, extending the the murein, and interacts with the cell membrane

teichoic acid

13

These are fatty acids attached to a phosphorylated disaccharide, a component of LPS

lipid A

14

LPS has this type of core, of which its sugars are unique to bacteria

polysaccharide

15

This is the highly variable repeating sugar subunit of LPS

O-antigen

16

O-antigen is the main reason for what

the different antigenic specificites amount gram(-) bacteria

17

LPS induces what, and is known as what

TNF-α and can lead to septic shock
ENDOTOXIN

18

TLR-4 recognizes what

LPS

19

TLR-2 recognizes what

peptidoglycan

20

TLR-2 and TLR-6 together recognize what

teichoic acids

21

This is involved in the attachment of bacteria to cells and other surfaces; can also be used for gene transfer (antibiotic resistance)

pili (fimbriae)
[sex pili]

22

These are specialized proteins that are located on the tip of fimbriae

adhesions; specifically developed for adhesion

23

This is the term for when multiple flagella are located at one end of the bacterium

lophotrichous

24

This is the term for when multiple flagella are located all over the bacterium

peritrichous

25

What are the three components of a flagella and what is the portion you can see

filament (can see this)
hook
rod

26

True or False
Flagella move the bacterium in a corkscrew like pattern

True

27

The bacterium moves through a period of what, with CCW or CW being the main movement direction

runs and tumbles
CCW

28

When movement is directed it is referred to as this

taxis

29

Taxis can be directed in which way

toward something good or away from something bad

30

This is a substance that surrounds a cell

glycocalyx

31

A glycocalyx that is well organized, firmly attached is called a what? it is usually made of polysaccharides, but can include monosaccharides and glycoproteins

capsule

32

A glycocalyx that is not well organized or firmly attached is called a what

slime layer

33

What role does a capsule play when it comes to an immune response

a capsule makes it harder for a macrophage to phagocytose
for some bacteria, it is a virulence factor

34

True or False
The immune system can recognize a bacterium that has a capsule

True; TLR-5

35

TLR-5 recognizes what

flagella (and capsules)

36

What happens when the immune system recognizes a microbe

the release of cytokines

37

O antigen always refers to what

LPS; gram (-)

38

What does O, H, and K antigens refer to

LPS
flagella
capsules

39

Bacterial pathogens can be classified into 2 broad classes

opportunistic and primary

40

True or False
Opportunistic bacteria rarely cause disease in individuals with intact immunological and anatomical defenses

True

41

These pathogens only cause disease if something goes wrong with the host

opportunistic

42

These pathogens are capable of establishing infection and causing disease in individuals with intact immune defenses

primary

43

Primary pathogens contain these

virulence determinants that allow them to adhere, colonize, invade, and induce damage

44

What must a pathogen do before it can colonize, invade, or otherwise affect the host tissue

adhere

45

What are the two types of adherence

non-specific
specific

46

This type of adherence is reversible and there are multiple ways to dock

non-specific

47

This type of adherence is irreversible and is anchoring

specific

48

Specific adhesion involves which substances and found where

adhesions
tips of fimbriae

49

In S. mutans, what is so special about the formation of a pellicle

the adhesion of glucose transferase which binds to a salivary protein that is involved in the formation

50

This is a complex multifunctional glycoprotein commonly found in plasma and associated with mucosal surfaces; an adhesion

fibronectin

51

S. pyogenes binds to fibronectin through the use of what

lipotechoic acids

52

What is a limiting factor in colonization

nutrient ability

53

What are the three methods of how bacteria take-up nutrients

carrier-mediated diffusion
phosphyorlation-linked transport
active transport

54

This type of nutrient take up involves a carrier protein that follows a concentration gradient

carrier-mediated diffusion

55

This type of nutrient take up involves a carrier protein as an enzyme that changes the nutrient (i.e. glucose to G6P)

phosphorylation-liked transport

56

This type of nutrient take up involves the use of ATP to create H+ concentration gradient which brings in H+ and lactose (for example)

active transport

57

This is often needed for pathogenesis, but it alone is not sufficient enough for pathogenesis; additional virulence determinants are needed

colonization

58

What are three examples of how additional virulence determinants are needed with colonization

induce changes in the host cell
incude damage upon invasion
produce toxin after colonization

59

How does E.coli induce tissue pathology upon colonization

colonization leads to actin polymerization
actin polymerization causes structural rearrangement of host cell
structural changes to host cell leads to loss of function

60

These are the most prominent mechanisms used to invade host tissue

hyaluronidase and collangenase

61

hylauronidase will degrade what

hyluronic acid; a common component of the ECM

62

collagenase will degrade what

collagen; an important component of connective tissue

63

True or False
Endotoxin is secreted

False; it is not secreted, it is on the surface of the bacterium; LPS
exotoxin is secreted

64

What does type 1 exotoxin target

membrane acting; stimulates transmembrane signals

65

what does type 2 exotoxin target

membrane damaging; creates pores

66

what does type 3 exotoxin target

intracellular effecters; gets into host cell and induces enzymatic activity

67

Pathogenesis (or damage to the host) is often regulated by what

microbial factors

68

The infectious organism uses with lytic viral infections, invasions damage host tissue, and toxin producing microbes, and what does the host response result in

phagocytes
cytotoxic T cells