EX2 Diaphragm, Kidney, and Posterior Abdominal Wall Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EX2 Diaphragm, Kidney, and Posterior Abdominal Wall Deck (67):
1

This principal muscle of respiration is dome shaped and separates thoraces and abdominal cavities

diaphragm

2

This nerve supplies right and left hemidiaphragms of the diaphragm

phrenic nerve

3

These nerves supplies lateral borders of the diaphragm and some sensory to the diaphragm

intercostal nerves

4

The cervical plexus (ansa cervicalis) sends what type of branches to where

motor branches to infrahyoid strap muscles

5

What does the phrenic nerve specifically supply

entire motor component
30% sensory fibers

6

Where does the phrenic nerve originate

C3-C5 spinal segments

7

Paralysis of the cervical spinal cord results in what regarding the diaphragm

paralysis of diaphragmatic respiration
hemidiaphragm cannot contract (descend); remaining high in the thorax

8

What type of landmarks are found in the diaphragm and at what vertebral level

vena cava foramen - T8
esophageal hiatus - T10
aortic hiatus - T12

9

This ligament arches over aorta

1 median arcuate ligament

10

These ligaments arch over psoas muscle

2 medial arcuate ligaments

11

These ligaments arch over quadrates lumborum muscles

2 lateral arcuate ligaments

12

These arteries supply superior surface of the diaphragm

pericardiocophrenic
superior phrenic
(via internal thoracic and thoracic aorta)

13

This artery supplies the periphery of the diaphragm

musculophrenic artery
(via internal thoracic)

14

This artery supplies the inferior surface of the diaphragm

inferior phrenic artery
(via abdominal aorta)

15

The venous drainage of the diaphragm drains to which major vein

inferior vena cava (IVC)

16

The kidneys are located lateral to the vertebral column at what vertebral level

T12-L3

17

Which kidney is typically more superior

left side, due to liver being on the right
left superior pole ~ 11th rib
right superior pol ~ 12th rib

18

What encapsulates the kidneys

peri-renal fat and renal fascia

19

This nerve supplies the right and left hemidiaphragms of the kidneys

phrenic nerve

20

These nerves supplies the lateral borders and some sensory to the kidney

intercostal nerves

21

The kidneys ascend from where during development

the pelvis

22

ectopic pelvic kidneys remain where

anterior to sacrum

23

horseshoe kidneys are where

below IMA

24

transplanted kidneys are where

placed lower in abdomen

25

What are the layers of the kidneys

fibrous capsule - outer later
renal cortex - outer 1/3
renal medulla - inner 2/3

26

The renal medulla contains what structures

rental pyramids

27

Where does the flow of urine begin and descend to

renal papillae (tips of pyramids)
minor calyces
major calyces
renal plevis
ureter
urinary bladder
urethra

28

Which renal artery is longer, right or left?

right, passing posterior to IVC

29

Where do the renal arteries divide and into what

each divides at hilum into 5 segmental arteries
END ARTERIES (no collateral circulation)

30

Which renal vein is longer, right or left?

left, passing anterior to the arteries/aorta

31

Which is more anterior, renal artery or vein

vein

32

The ureters cross which muscle to enter the bladder

psoas major muscle

33

The ureters run in which orientation to the gonadal vessels and anterior to which artery

obliquely posterior
external iliac artery

34

True or False
A bifid renal pelvis and ureters are fairly common

True

35

You can occasionally find what type of ureters

retrocaval; behind the IVC, can compress ureters compromising the drainage causing kidney stones

36

The ureter arteries arise from which three sources

renal artery
testicular or ovarian artery
abdominal aorta
*veins drain into similar named veins

37

What are some ways in which a kidney stone can be removed

larger than 1cm = surgically
may be ultrasonically crushed = lithotripsy
spontaneously pass through ureter

38

Pain from a kidney stone is associated with what

waves of contraction forcing the stone though ureter
gradually moves inferoanteriorly toward groin; from side and back between ribs to pelvis to inguinal
areas of cutaneous innervation T11-12

39

This is a roughly triangular gland lying superior to kidney and posterior to IVC

right adrenal gland

40

This is a semilunar gland typing superomedial to kidney near hilum

left adrenal gland

41

What does the adrenal cortex produce

adrenal steroids

42

What does the adrenal medulla do

acts as a sympathetic ganglion; receives preganglionic fibers that synapse directly

43

True or False
The adrenal gland is richly vascularized

True; due to endocrine function

44

The suprarenal artery has 3 sources, what are they

superior suprarenal artery (6-8)
middle suprarenal artery (1+)
inferior suprarenal artery (1+)

45

The superior suprarenal artery is derived from

inferior phrenic artery

46

The middle suprarenal artery is derived from

abdominal aorta

47

The inferior suprarenal artery is derived from

renal artery

48

What are the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall

transversus abdominus
quadratus lumborum
psoas major
iliacus
psoas minor
diaphragm

49

What is the main arterial supply to the posterior wall

lumbar artery; 4 pairs
branches of abdominal aorta

50

The aorta bifurcates where

L4
level of umbilicus (T10)

51

What are the main nerves of the posterior wall

ventral rami (T12-L4)
lumbar plexus
located beneath fascia of posterior abdominal muscles

52

The sympathetic trunks are located where in relationship to the posterior abdominal wall

beneath fascia of posterior abdominal mucles
continuous with thoracic portion

53

This nerve supplies sensory to anterior/lateral abdominal wall

subcostal nerve (T12)

54

This nerve supplies motor to abdominal muscles; EO, IO, TA, pyramidalis, RA, and QL

subcostal nerve (T12)

55

These nerves can arise from common trunk, descends anterior to QL

iliohypogastric
ilioinguinal nerves (L1)

56

This nerve supplies skin of suprapubic region and abdominal muscles

iliohypogastric nerve

57

This nerve runs through inguinal canal to supply it and abdominal muscles

ilioinguinal nerve

58

This nerve pierces psoas major muscle and descends along anterior surface, and splits to femoral branch and genital branch

genitofemoral nerve (L1-L2)

59

This nerve supplies skin inferior and medial to inguinal ligament and cremaster muscle (spermatic cord)

genitofemoral nerve

60

This nerve descends anterior to iliacus muscle and passes deep to inguinal ring, inferior to ASIS

lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (L2-L3)

61

This nerve supplies anterior/lateral skin of thigh

lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (L2-L3)

62

This nerve runs between iliac us and psoas major muscles, passes deep to inguinal ligament and inferior to ASIS

femoral nerve (L2-L4)

63

This nerve supplies sensory and motor to anterior thigh

femoral nerve

64

This nerve runs medial to psoas major and passes through obturator foramen

obturator nerve (L2-L4)

65

This nerve supplies sensory and motor to medial thigh

obturator nerve

66

This nerve has a large nerve trunk crosses over ala of sacrum and descends into pelvis to help form sacral plexus

lumbosacral trunk (L4-L5)

67

This nerve provides general contributions to both plexuses

lumbosacral trunk