EX2 Histology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EX2 Histology Deck (66):
1

These accessory digestive organs come in direct contact with food and help to physical break it down

tongue and teeth

2

These accessory digestive organs produce or store secretions that will reach the digestive tract via ducts; never in contact with food directly; chemical breakdown

salivary glands
pancreas
liver
gallbladder

3

True or False
Anything that is within the GI tract is "outside" of the body

True; it must pass by epithelium to be considered in the body

4

What are the four layers of the GI tract wall from the lumen outward

muscosa
submucosa
muscularis externa
serosa or adventitia

5

What are the three layers of the mucosa

lining epithelium
lamina propria
muscularis mucosae

6

What two types of lining epithelium are there and where are they found

nonkeratinized stratified squamous; found in the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and anus
simple columnar; found in the stomach, SI, and LI

7

Which type of lining epithelium is better for serving a protective role/barrier

nonkeratinized stratified squamous

8

Which type of lining epithelium is better for secretion and absorption

simple columnar

9

The lamina propria is made up of what

loose (areolar) connective tissues

10

The muscularis mucosae is what type of muscle tissue

smooth muscle tissue

11

The submucosa is made up of what type of tissue and its purpose is what

dense irregular connective tissue; collagen
binds mucosa to muscularis externa
lymphoid tissues

12

The submucosa contains which plexus and what for

Meissner's plexus providing innervation to secretory cells

13

The muscularis externa contains what two layers which work together to do what

inner circular layer
outer longitudinal layer
peristalsis

14

This layer of muscularis externa works to lengthen the GI tract, constricts the lumen, and can be thickened to form sphincters or valves

inner circular layer

15

This layer of muscularis externa runs along the length of the tract, dilates the lumen, and shortens the GI tract

outer longitudinal layer

16

This nerve plexus controls the muscularis externa

Myenteric nerve plexus (Auerbach's plexus)

17

The serosa is made up of what type of tissues and is found where

mesothelium (simple squamous epithelium)
loose (areolar) connective tissue
found interperitoneal

18

The adventitia is made up of what tissue and is found where

loose (areolar) connective tissue
found retroperitoneal (esophagus)

19

The esophagus has which type of lining epithelium

nonkeratinized stratified squamous

20

The esophagus has what type of muscularis externa

proximal 1/3 --> skeletal muscle
middle 1/3 --> mix of smooth and skeletal
distal 1/3 --> smooth muscle

21

True or False
Serosa is found in the distal esophagus

True; adventita is found proximally

22

What are the two types of glands found in the esophagus

esophageal glands proper (submucosa)
esophageal cardiac glands (lamina propria)

23

Which gland is found in the distal esophagus

esophageal cardiac glands; protects against stomach acid

24

This is where the nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium changes to simple columnar

cardioesophageal junction

25

What are the four subdivisions of the stomach

cardia
fundus
body
pylorus

26

The stomach is responsible for the digestion of what type of macromolecules and the formation of what

carbs, lipids, and proteins
into chyme

27

True or False
The rugae allow for increased surface area for absorption

False; while the do increase the surface area, it allows for expansion

28

In the cardia of the stomach, the cardiac glands produce what

primarily mucous

29

In the fundus/body of the stomach, the gastric hands (fundic glands) produce what

HCl and pepsin

30

In the pylorus region of the stomach, the pylori hands produce what

primarily mucous

31

What type of lining epithelium is found in the stomach; and what is so special about it

simple columnar with surface mucous cells
it can invaginate into the lamina propria forming gastric pits which are the opening for different glands

32

What is so special about the muscularis externa in the stomach

it contains an additional inner oblique layer which aids in breakdown of the bollus

33

What are the three parts of the fundic gland

isthmus
neck
base

34

What are the five different types of cells found in a fundic gland

surface mucous cell
mucous neck cell
parietal cell (HCl and intrinsic factor)
chief cell (pepsingoen and gastric lipase)
G cell (gastrin)

35

True or False
The fundic gland contains stem cells

True; they are located in the isthmus

36

Where does absorption take place in the GI tract

roughly 10% of absorption is in the large intestine and stomach and the other 90% is in the small intestine

37

What macromolecule is absorbed in the small intestine and not in the stomach

nucleic acids

38

These are the circular folds in the small intestine with a submucosa core

plicae circulares

39

These are the fingerlike projections of mucosa in the small intestine

villi

40

These are projections of apical membrane of intestinal absorptive cells; striated border

microvilli

41

What two cell types are found in the epithelium of the small intestine

absorptive cells (enterocytes)
goblet cells

42

These are tubular glands consisting of paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells, and stem cells

crypts of Lieberkühn (intestinal glands)

43

These cells are found at the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn and produce lysozyme and regulate normal microbiota

paneth cells

44

The submucosa of the small intestine (specifically the duodenum) contains what specialized gland

Brunner's glands; it neutralized chyme via an alkaline mucous

45

True or False
The majority of the stomach contains serosa

True; except for the retroperitoneal duodenum

46

In the ileum, groups of what are present in the lamina propria and submucosa and are referred to as what

lymphatic nodules
Peyer's patches

47

What type of cells overlay Peyer's patches

M (microfold) cells
involved with antigen presentation

48

True or False
The large intestine contains plicae circulars and villi

False; it does not contain those

49

Found in the large intestine, this is an outer muscularis externa layer that is gathered into bands

teniae coli

50

These are the pouches found in the large intestine

haustra

51

These are small fatty projection found on the large intestine

omental appendages

52

The large intestine's primary function is to what

continued breakdown and resorption via bacteria
synthesize vitamins

53

What type of epithelial cells lines the small and large intestines

simple columnar

54

The large intestine contains crypts of Lieberkühn; two main differences between these and those in the small intestine are what

the absorptive cells are called colonocytes
no paneth cells

55

What are the three parts of the pancreas

head, body, and tail

56

True or False
The pancreas is mostly an endocrine gland

False; it is 98-99% and exocrine gland (compound acinar gland)

57

The pancreas as an exocrine gland does what

secretes pancreatic juices (digestion of carbs, proteins, lipids, NAs); neutralizes chyme (bicarb)

58

The pancreas and an endocrine gland does what

Islets of Langerhans
secretes hormones; glucagon/insulin

59

The liver receives blood from what two sources

hepatic artery (oxygenatd blood)
hepatic portal vein (deoxygenated blood with things to be filtered out such as toxins, microbes, nutrients, etc.)

60

This is the six-sided structure consisting of specialized cells called hepatocytes in plates surrounding a central vein

hepatic lobulues

61

The stacks of hepatocytes are one cell thick and surrounded by these

sinusoids; leaky capillaries

62

These are the largest cells lining the sinusoids and are phagocytotic

Kupffer cells

63

The microvilli of the hepatocytes extend into this space

space of Disse; space between the endothelial cells and hepatocytes

64

On each corer of the hexagonal hepatic lobule are what

portal triad; portal vein, hepatic artery, bile duct

65

This is used for the storage of bile and the release of it when it is needed for fast breakdown

gall bladder

66

This is very large in the gall bladder

muscularis externa; used for squeezing out bile