EX2 Lower Abdomen Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EX2 Lower Abdomen Deck (71):
1

What is the opening and the exit of the stomach

cardiac orfice; entrance from esophagus
pyloric sphincter; exit to duodenum

2

What are the temporary folds in the stomach

rugae

3

What is the main purpose of the stomach

mixing of the mass of food (bolus)
beginning the enzymatic digestion
chyme production

4

This is the first section of the small intestine, is retroperitoneal, and fixed/relatively immobile

duodenum

5

These portions of the small intestine are tethered by root of mesentery proper but are very mobile

jéjunum and ileum

6

These are permanent folds within the intestine; are more prominent in the jejunum

plicae circularis

7

The ileum empties into the cecum at which junction

ileocecal junction

8

What is the name of the arterial loops in the jejunum and ileum

arterial arcades

9

This is a remnant of embryonic yolk sac appearing as a finger like pouch located 1m proximal to ileocecal valve

Meckel's (ileal) diverticulum

10

What is the clinical significance of Meckel's diverticulum

may become inflamed and mimic appendicitis

11

This opens into the cecum inferior to ileocecal orifice; commonly retrocecal

veriform appendix

12

What type of mesentery covers the appendix

triangular mesentary --> mesoappendix

13

Appendicitis causes vague pain where?

the periumbilical region; afferent pain referred to T10 level

14

Appendicitis causes severe pain where?

later from the right lower quadrant; from the irritation of peritoneum of posterior abdominal wall (pain where inflammation is found)

15

Where is the pain most severe with appendicitis

over spinoumbilical point between the ASIS and umbilicus

16

This is divided into 5 segments and 2 flexures

large intestine (colon)

17

What are the 5 segments of the colon

cecum
ascending colon
transverse colon
descending colon
sigmoid colon

18

What are the flexures of the transverse colon

right colic (hepatic)
left colic (splenic)

19

Where does the large intestine terminate into

the rectum

20

What frames the small intestines

the colon

21

These are 3 smooth muscle bands paralleling the length of the colon

teniae coli

22

These are outpouchings produced by teniae coli

haustra coli

23

These are fat tags found along the colon

epiploic appendages

24

What are the unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta starting with the most superior

celiac trunk
superior mesenteric artery
inferior mesenteric artery

25

This artery supplies the liver, gall bladder, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and the spleen

celiac trunk

26

What are the branches of the celiac trunk

common hepatic
left gastric
splenic artery

27

This artery sends 15-18 intestinal arteries to the small intestine and supplies the proximal 2/3 of transverse colon

superior mesenteric artery

28

What branches of superior mesenteric supply the proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon

ileocolic
right colic
middle colic

29

This artery supplies the colon from distal 1/3 of transverse colon

Inferior mesenteric artery

30

What are the branches of the inferior mesenteric artery

left colic
sigmoid (4)
superior rectal

31

True or False
The patterns of SMA and IMA branching is variable

True; anastomoses are important

32

Collateral circulation of the lower abdomen is supplied by which anastomoses

colic branches

33

The consistent vascular arc around the colon is supplied by what

marginal artery of Drummond

34

Which organ is a major site of anastomoses between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries

pancreas

35

What artery besides SMA/IMA anastomose in the pancreas

inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery
posterior superior pacreacticoduodenal artery (branch of gastroduodenal artery)

36

This paired artery sends lateral branches of abdominal aorta (lateral to SMA) which enter the hilum of each kidney to supply it

renal artery (left and right)

37

What are the branches of the renal artery

sends branches to adrenal glands and ureters

38

What are the branches of the adrenal glands

branches from renal artery
branches from inferior phrenic artery and aorta

39

This paired artery sends lateral branches of abdominal aorta inferior to renal arteries

gonadal artery (left and right)

40

These arteries cross over ureters and iliac vessels and descends to plevis to supply ovaries

ovarian arteries (found only in females)

41

These arteries cross over utters and enter inguinal canal and descends into scrotum to supply testes

testicular arteries (found only in males)

42

What gonadal artery is typically found to be more superior than the other

left gonadal artery

43

This is the largest vein in the body it begins at roughly the L5 level at the union of common iliac veins

inferior vena cava

44

What does the inferior vena cava transport and to where

returns poorly oxygenated blood from LL, most of the back, abdominal wall, and abdominopelvic viscera
to the right atrium

45

Where does the blood from the viscera drain to

portal venous system

46

There are how many portal-cava anastomoses

four

47

The portal gastric vein anastomoses with which caval vein

esophageal vein

48

The caval epigrastric vein anastomoses with which portal vein

paraumbilical vein

49

The portal superior rectal vein anastomoses with which caval vein

middle/inferior rectal vein

50

The caval retroperitoneal vein anastomoses with which portal vein

colic vein

51

True or False
The portal system has no valves

True; reverse flow is possible into the cabal veins

52

Reversal of the blood flow from the portal venous system to the caval venous system can lead to what

restriction of blood flow resulting in engorged cabal veins
may become dilated and varicose and easily nicked

53

Dilated esophageal veins produce what

esophageal varices

54

Dilated epigastric veins produce what

caput medusae

55

Dilated inferior and middle rectal veins produce what

hemorrhoids

56

The innervation to the viscera is via what nerve plexus

autonomic; parasympathetic/sympathetic

57

Where do the sympathetic fibers that supply the abdomen originate

T5-L2(3)
thoracolumbar

58

Where do the parasympathetic fibers that supply the abdomen originate

CN X and S2-4
craniospinal

59

The preganglionic splanchnic nerves synapse where

collateral (prevertebral) ganglia

60

Postganglionic fibers leave the ganglia and travel where to reach what

travel with the main arterial branches (celiac truck, IMA, SMA, renal, etc.)
the effector organs

61

This is the name of the axons from the preganglionic sympathetic cell bodies

greater (running with celiac trunk)
lesser (running with SMA)
least (running with IMA)

62

In which gland would you find postganglionic cell bodies

adrenal gland

63

Preganglionic parasymapthetic nerves from what travel on the celiac trunk, SMA, renal artery and their branches

CN X

64

Preganglionic parasymapthetic nerves from what travel on the IMA and branches

S2-S4

65

Where to the synapses of the parasympathetic division occur

within the effector organs

66

This plexus travels with celiac branches

celiac ganglion

67

This plexus travels with SMA branches

superior mesenteric ganglion

68

This plexus travels with renal branches

aorticorenal ganglion

69

This plexus travels with IMA branches

inferior mesenteric ganglion

70

The celiac, SM, and aorticorenal ganglion receive what nerve branches

thoracic splanchnic and CN X branches

71

The IM ganglion receives what nerve branches

lumbar splanchnic and S2-S4 branches