EX2 S. pneumoniae, B. pertussis, L. pneumophila, and Mycobacterium - Daniels Flashcards Preview

SP14 Microbiology > EX2 S. pneumoniae, B. pertussis, L. pneumophila, and Mycobacterium - Daniels > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX2 S. pneumoniae, B. pertussis, L. pneumophila, and Mycobacterium - Daniels Deck (56):
1

Strep pneumoniae is what gram stain, shape, oxygen level, spore, and capsule

gram +
diplococci
aerotolerant anaerobe
non-spore forming
encapsulated

2

S. pneumoniae is the main cause of what

community-acquired pneumonia

3

What are the results of hemolysis, catalase, and what is the test that presumptively identifies strep pneumonia

α-hemolysis (completely lyse)
catalase negative
optochin susceptibility identifies it

4

What genre of people carry S. pneumoniae and how is it transmitted

young children; nasopharyngeal mucosa
transmission via respiratory secretion/hands

5

What is the key location of entry for S. pneumoniae

lower airway

6

What are some risk factors for a S. pneumoniae infection

viral infection
smoking
loss of consciousness
edema in lungs
high risk, age, demographics
season

7

What are the four stages of pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae

1. alveoli fill with fluid
2. early consolidation phase
3. late consolidation phase
4. recovery phase

8

What phase of pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae involves neutrophil inflammation

early consolidation phase

9

What phase of pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae involves the alveoli becoming packed with neutrophils and the affected tissues become solid

late consolidation phase

10

What is involved with the recover phase of S. pneumoniae infection

macrophages phagocytose debris
normal architecture is re-established

11

What other diseases besides pneumonia does S. pneumoniae cause

otitis media
pleural effusion (fluid in chest)
bacteremia --> meninigitis

12

What can you use to treat a S. pneumoniae infection

antibiotics; penicillins, macrolides, pluroquinolones

13

True or False
There is a vaccine for S. pneumoniae, made of capsular antigens

True

14

Legionella pneumophila is what gram, shape, oxygen level

gram -
pleomorphic rods
obligate aerobe

15

What is special about L. pneumophila in regards to lab and identification

it is fastidious; requiring special conditions
requires cysteine

16

L. pneumophila is a parasite of what

protozoa; biolfims

17

True or False
L. pneumophila cannot withstand high temps

False; L. pneumophila can withstand up to 46° C

18

True or Fales
You cannot spread L. pneumophila person to person (by cough)

True

19

L. pneumophila bacteria are phagocytosed where and by what

they are phagocytosed in the alveoli by alveolar macrophages

20

L. pneumophila virulent strains multiply where and cause what

multiply within autophagosomes (double membrane RER)
cause inflammation; acute bronchopneumonia

21

Acute bronchpneumina caused by L. pneumophila can result to what

recruitment of more macrophages
abscess formation
suppurative (neutrophils)

22

L. pneumophila induces what two immune responses

cell-mediated immune response
virulence/proimflammatory mechanism

22

This includes the secretion of IFN-γ and causes iron sequestration; decreases replication of bacteria

cell-mediated immune response

22

L. pneumophila has LPS and flagellin (virulence which allows survival in macrophages) which stimulates what

enhances inflammation via innate immune system

22

Anti-microbial drugs are good with what

intracellular penetration

22

True or False
Whopping cough is VERY contagious

True; 90% attack rate
one person can infect 12-15 others

22

Bordatella bronchiseptica is what

canine infectious tracheobronchitis; kennel cough

22

Penicillins are not effective against L. pneumophila why

they cannot achieve therapeutic concentration in the macrophages (where it festers)

22

Bordetella pertussis (and parapertussis) are what gram, shape, and oxygen level

gram -
rods
obligate aerobe

22

B. pertussis causes what fatal disease in infants

whopping cough

22

Where is B. pertussis encountered, where does it enter, and where does it spread

encountered via infected people
colonized the nasopharynx
spreads to the trachea and bronchi

22

What mechanism does B. pertussis use to spread

ciliary adherence via filamentous hemagglutinin, pili, and pertactin

23

What toxins does B. pertussis contain

pertussis toxin
adenylate cyclase/hemolysin
endotoxin

23

What does adenylate cyclase/hemolysin do

upregulates host cAMP which decreases neutrophil function, increases capillary permeability; resulting in edema

23

What toxins does B. parapertussis

adenylate cyclase/hemolysin
endotoxin
(no pertussis toxin)

23

What is the first stage of B. pertussis infection

catarrhal stage
really bad runny nose; mistaken for a bad cold
EXTREMELY CONTAGIOUS

23

What is the second stage of B. pertussis infection

paroxysmal stage (cough)

23

Why is laboratory diagnosis of pertussis tricky

fewer organisms shed in paroxysmal stage
deep nasal swab or nasal flush
diagnosable < 3 weeks of cough onset

23

What is the main type of prevention against B. pertussis

vaccination
dTAP
Tdap

24

What is the main component of B. pertussis vaccination

acellular pertussis

25

Mycobacterium spp. cause what diseases

tuberculosis (M. bovis, M. avium-intracellulare)
leprosy (M. leprae)

26

True or False
M. tuberculosis is highly contagious

True

27

Opportunistic disease is caused by what

rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM)

28

Mycobacterium live in what oxygen level and do that undergo spore formation or not

obligate aerobes
non-spore forming

29

Mycobacterium have what type of cell wall

thick sticky cell wall
mycolic acid binds carbol fuscin dye

30

Mycobacterium are encountered how, they multiple where, and spread where

encountered via ingestion or inhalation
can either multiply in the intestine or lung

31

Mycobacterium is killed by cell mediated immunity but then under go what

latency period
upon reactivation, is deemed secondary TB

32

How does a Mycobacterium granuloma form

multiplication in macrophages
activation of CD4 (TH1)
cytokine profile of IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-2
recruitment of more macrophages

33

What is the structure of a Mycobacterium granuloma

shell of CD4 lymphocytes and a center of infected macrophages

34

What is used to diagnose TB

intradermal skin test
acid-fast sputum
culture (very slow)
PCR

35

This is a granulomatous disease what spreads via respiratory route of which the organism prefers lower temperature (skin)

leprosy (M. leprae)

36

What are the two forms of leprosy

tuberculoid
lepromatous

37

This is a milder form of leprosy, may be self limiting, and very few bacteria are present in the lesions

tuberculoid leprosy

38

This is a sever, disfiguring form of leprosy, many organisms are found in the lesions, and cell-mediated immunity is significantly decreased

lepromatous leprosy

39

True or False
M. leprae is uncultivable in vitro

True

40

What animal may be a carrier of lepromatous disease (~20%)

armadillos