EX3 Histology - Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EX3 Histology - Endocrine System Deck (86):
1

This type of gland secretes onto a surface; either directly or through a duct

exocrine

2

This type of gland secretes internally; ductless glands; secretes hormones; primarily uses cardiovascular system for distribution

endocrine

3

What are the two types of hormones

circulating hormones
local hormones

4

What are the two types of local hormones

paracrine
autocrine

5

In this type of feedback; the more I produce the less I do

negative feedback

6

This is the main visceral control center for the body "command center for the endocrine system"

hypothalmas

7

The hypothalmus regulated what

body temperature
food intake
water balance/thirst
sleep/wake cycles
sexual behavior
endocrine functioning

8

What is the hypothalmus vital for maintaining

homeostasis

9

The hypothalms is a major link between what two systems

endocrine and nervous

10

The hypothalmus produces how many hormones

9; 7 anterior and 2 posterior which affect the anterior pituitary

11

How is the hypothalmus and pituitary gland connected

via the infundibulum

12

This is known as the "master gland for the endocrine system"

pituitary gland (hypophysis)

13

What are the three parts of the anterior pituitary

pars distalis
pars intermedia
pars tuberalis

14

this is the bulk of the anterior pituitary; cords of epithelial cells interspersed with fenestrated capillaries

pars distalis

15

This surrounds a series of colloid filled follicles that represent the residual lumen of rathke's pouch

pars intermedia

16

This forms a collar or sheath around the infundibulum

pars tuberalis

17

This part of the anterior pituitary develops from the anterior wall of Rathke's pouch

pars distalis

18

This part of the anterior pituitary develops from the thin remnant of posterior wall of Rathke's pouch

pars intermedia

19

This part of the anterior pituitary develops from the thickened lateral walls of Rathke's pouch

pars tuberalis

20

In which part of the anterior pituitary would you find basophilic gonadotrophic cells

pars tuberalis

21

What are the two parts of the posterior pituitary gland

pars nervosa
infundibulum

22

This is the part of the posterior pituitary where the neurosecretory axons and their endings lie

pars nervosa

23

This is the part of the posterior pituitary containing neurosecretory axons formed the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract

infundibulum

24

What is the embryological origin of the pituitary

oral ectoderm outpocketing (Rathke's pouch)

25

What is the embryological origin of the infudibulum

closing in of the lateral walls of the neurohypophyseal busd

26

The anterior lobe of the pituitary develops from where

the roof of the mouth

27

Regulating hormones acting upon the anterior lobe of the pituitary reach the anterior lobe via which system

hypothalamo-hpophyseal portal system

28

What are the four steps in the control of the anterior pituitary via the hypothalams

1. neurosecretory neurons in the hypothalamus synthesize the hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones in their cell body
2. These hypothalmic hormones travel down the axon to the terminals and exit via exocytosis
3. They diffuse into the hypophyseal portal system at primary plexus of hypophyseal portal system (fenestrated capillaries)
4. Then pass from primary plexus to hypophyseal portal veins into secondary plexus bringing the hormones directly to the pars distalis

29

What are the two groups of secretory cells in the pars distalis

chromophils
chromophobes

30

What are the two types of chromophils

basophils
acidophils

31

In this type of cell, the hormone is stored in cytoplasmic granules

chromophils

32

This type of cell are undifferentiated stem-like cells and are clear

chromophobes

33

Gonadotropic, corticotropic, and thyrotropic cells are all what type of secretory cell

basophils

34

Somatotropic and mammotropic cells are what type of secretory cell

acidophils

35

This is an acidophil secreted by somatotrophs

human-growth-hormone (hGH)

36

This is a basophil secreted by thyrotrophs

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

37

These are basophils secreted by gonadtrophs

follicle-stimulaing hormone (FSH)
luteinizing hormone (LH)

38

This is an acidophil secreted by lactrotrophs

prolactin (PRL)

39

These are basophils secreted by corticotrophs

adrenocorticotrphic hormone (ACTH)
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

40

50% of what are chromophobes

pars distalis

41

This is the growth hormone-inhibiting hormone, secreted by somatotrophs and thyrotrophs

somatostatin

42

Corticotrophs and lactotrophs secrete this inhibitory hormone

dopamine

43

Prolactin acts upon which "organ"

mammary glands and testes

44

adrenocorticotropic hormone acts upon this organ

adrenal cortex

45

growth hormone acts upon which organs

body tissues
BONE
muscle
adipose
*liver; insulin-like growth factor

46

follicle stimulating hormone acts upon this organ

gonads (testes and ovaries)

47

melanocyte-stimulating hormone acts upon this "organ"

melanocytes in the epidermis

48

True or False
The posterior pituitary does not synthesize hormones, but rather stores and releases two of them

True

49

What is the main component of the posterior pituitary

pars nervosa

50

This contains the axons and axon terminals of hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons, along with fibroblasts, mast cells, and pituicytes

pars nervosa

51

These are a type of glial cells, resembling the actrocyte that associates with fenestrated capillaries; many branches and pigmented vesicles, round/oval nuclei

pituicytes

52

What are the two hormones that are released from the posterior pituitary

ocytocin
antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)

53

Where is oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone synthezised

within the cell bodies of the neurosecretory neurons in the hypothalamus

54

What type of cells are the hormones stored in, prior to secretion, in the posterior pituitary in the avon terminal

Herring bodies (neurosecretory bodies)

55

This hormone stimulated the contraction of smooth muscle cells during childbirth and in milk ejection

oxytocin

56

This hormone conserved body water

antidiuretic hormone

57

What are the two parts of the adrenal gland

cortex
medulla

58

This part of the adrenal gland makes up 80-90% of the gland and the steroid secreting cells

cortex

59

This part of the adrenal gland is centrally located and contains catecholamine-secreting cells

medulla

60

What are the three regions of the adrenal cortex

zona glomerulosa
zona fasciculata
zona reticularis

61

This region of the adrenal cortex secretes androgens; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

zona reticularis

62

This region of the adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoid hormones; aldosterone

zona glomerulosa

63

This region of the adrenal cortex secretes glucocorticoid hormones; cortisol

zona fasciculata

64

This region of the adrenal gland secretes catecholamines; epinephrine and norepinephrine

adrenal medulla

65

This is a modified sympathetic ganglion of the ANS, with modified neurons (chromaffin cells) which cluster around blood vessels

adrenal medulla

66

chromaffin cells are controlled by what

sympathetic preganglionic neurons, which allow for release of hormones via exocytosis

67

This component of the pancreas synthesizes and secretes hormones

islets of Langerhans (endocrine)

68

Where do you find the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas

throughout but most numerous in the tail

69

What are the three principle cells of the islets of Langerhans

Beta (B)
Alpha (A)
Delta (D)

70

These cells make of 70% of the islet, synthesize and secrete insulin, found in the center of the islet

beta cells

71

These cells make 17% of the islet, synthesize and secrete glucagon, found in the periphery of the islet

alpha cells

72

These cells make up 7% of the islet, synthesize and secrete somatostatin, found towards the periphery of the islet

delta cells

73

This lowers blood glucose level as it signals for an acceleration of glucose transport into cells and the conversion of the glucose into glycogen

insulin

74

This raises blood glucose level as it signals for the breakdown of glycogen into glucose in the liver

glucagon

75

This inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion

somatostatin

76

These cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide, located near duodenum

F cells

77

Thyroid hormones are produced by what type of thyroid gland cell

thyroid follicles (follicular cells)
filled with a gel-like mass of thyroglobulin

78

What are the thyroid hormones

thyroxine
tri-idothyronine

79

What are the thyroid hormones important for

growth, cell differentiation, and control of metabolic rate and oxygen consumption of body cells

80

These cells are ground in the thyroid gland and responsible for the production of calcitonin (CT)

parafollicular cells

81

Calcitonin works to do what

decrease the level of calcium in the blood by building bone and inhibiting osteoclasts

82

This system controls the secretion of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

negative feedback;
high blood calcium stimulates secretion of calcitonin inhibits PTH

83

What are the two types of cells in the parathyroid gland

chief cells
oxyphil cells

84

These cells produce parathyroid hormone, small, numerous cells, slightly acidic

chief cells

85

These cells have an unknown function, very acidiophilic cytoplasm, common in old people

oxyphil cells

86

Parathyroid hormone works to do what

increase the level of calcium in the blood by stimulating osteoclases to resorb bone which releases calcium