EX3 Histology - Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EX3 Histology - Urinary System Deck (67):
1

What are the components of the urinary system

paired kidneys
paired ureters
urinary bladder
urethra

2

What are the seven main functions of the urinary system

regulation of blood ion composition
regulation of blood volume/pressure
regulation of blood pH
conservation of valuable nutrients
production/secretion of hormones
assist the liver is detoxification
eliminate organic wastes and foreign substances *nitrogenous waste

3

What three things describe the overall function of the urinary system

filtration of cellular wastes from blood
selective reabsorption of water and solutes
excretion of the wastes and excess water as urine

4

This is where the renal vessels, nerves, and renal pelvis pass into/out of the kidney

hilum

5

This is filled with loose connective tissue and fat, along with the renal pelvis, the calyces, and branches of vessels/nerves

renal sinus

6

The kidney surface is covered by what

connective tissue called the renal capsule

7

This the the functional part of the kidney and it can be divided into two regions

parenchyma

8

This is the superficial (outer) area of the kidney

renal cortex

9

This is the deep (inner) area of the kidney

renal medulla

10

Thee are 6-18 distinct conical or triangular structures of which funnel toward the renal sinus

renal pyramids

11

This is located between the pyramids; cortical tissue within medulla

renal columns

12

This is located at the apex of the pyramid and is the main location of urine production

renal papilla

13

This consists of the renal pyramid, its overlying renal cortex, and one-half of each adjacent renal column; will not see this is the adult

renal lobe

14

About what percentage of blood flow from cardiac output is going to the kidney

20-25%

15

These capillaries are associated with convoluted tubules

peritubular capillaries

16

This (capillary-like) is associated with the nephron loop

vasa recta

17

This is the fundamental structural and functional unit of the kidney

nephron

18

How many nephrons are in each human kidney

approximately 1 million

19

What are the two parts of a nephron

renal corpsucle
renal tubule

20

This is where the glomerular filtration occurs; located in the renal cortex

renal corpuscle

21

This is where tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion occurs

renal tubule

22

The nephron plus its collecting tubule forms what

uriniferous tubule

23

In order for urine to be produced, the nephron performs these three processes

glomerular filtration
tubular reabsorption
tubular secretion

24

This is the first step in urine production; water and most solutes in blood plasma move from the glomerular capillaries into glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

glomerular filtration

25

Filtered fluid moves through the renal tubule; and the tubule cells reabsorb 99% of the filtered water and many solutes, they return to the blood at peritubular capillaries

tubular reabsorption

26

This is when the tubule cells can remove additional substances (wastes, drugs, ions, etc.) from the blood in peritubular capillaries

tubular secretion

27

What is the main function of the nephron filtration

help maintain homeostasis of blood's volume and composition

28

What are the two components of the renal corpuscle

glomerulus
Bowman's capsule

29

This is a tuft of capillaries composed of 10-20 capillary loops supplied by an afferent arteriole and drained by efferent arteriole

glomerulus

30

This is a double-walled epithelial cup surrounding the glomerulus
visceral = inner
parietal = external

Bowman's (glomerular) capsule

31

Glomerular ultrafiltrate is collected where before it drains into the renal tubule

The urinary/Bowman's/capsular space located between the two layers

32

The visceral layer of Bowman's capsule contains what type of epithelium

modified simple squamous epithelial cells called podocytes

33

Extensions of podocytes are called what, which wrap around the single layer of endothelial cells

pedicles

34

This is the space between two pedicles where the ultrafiltrate from the blood (via fenestrations) enters Bowman's space

filtration slit

35

This semipermeable membrane covers the filtration slit

slit diaphragm

36

The parietal layer of Bowman's capsule contains what type of epithelium

simple squamous epithelium

37

This is where afferent and efferent arterioles enter/exit

vascular pole

38

This is where filtrate exits Bowman's space and enters PCT

urinary or tubular pole

39

This attaches to the glomerular capsule; highly coiled tube; lies in renal cortex

proximal convoluted tubule

40

This extends from the renal cortex into the renal medulla, turns, and returns to cortex

loop of Henle

41

This is the last part of the renal tubule; highly coiled; lies within renal cortex; empties into a collecting tubule

distal convoluted tubule

42

The PCT and DCT are lined with what type of epithelium

simple cubodial epithelium

43

True or False
The PCT contains a lot of mitochondria

True; stains a little pinker and is larger than DCT

44

The PCT contains what the of border

brush border; microvilli with varying lengths

45

The loop of henle contains what four parts

thick descending limb
thin descending limb
thin ascending limb
thick ascending limb

46

What types of epithelium do the thick and thin limb of the loop of henle contain

thick; simple cubodial
thin; simple squamous

47

True or False
The microvili of the DCT are few and short, therefore the lumen is smoother

True

48

This is where the ascending limb of the loop of henle contacts the afferent arteriole

macula densa

49

What becomes of the epithelium at the macula densa

It becomes columnar with apical nuclei

50

These are the smooth muscle cells located alongside the macula densa

juxtaglomerular cells

51

The macula dense plus the JA cells form what

the juxtaglomular apparatus (JGA)

52

What is the function of the JGA

to regulate blood pressure within the kidneys

53

Several collecting ducts merge at the apex of the pyramid to form what

the papillary ducts (ducts of Bellini) with drain into minor calyx at renal papilla

54

Papillary ducts are made up of what type of epithelium

simple columnar duts

55

How man major/minor calices are there

6-8 minor
3-4 major

56

This is located closer to the pyramid, long nephron tube, concentrated urine

juxtamedullary nephron

57

This is located further away from the pyramid, small nephron loop, in cortex

cortical nephron

58

This is a muscular tube about 10-12in in length; uses peristalsis

ureter

59

This is a hollow, distensible, muscular organ in pelvis; store urine

urinary bladder

60

This is a tubular structure for the passage of urine from the bladder to the outside of the body

urethra

61

What is the length of the urethra in males/females

males; 20cm
femals; 3-5cm

62

True or False
The calyces, renal pelvis, ureter, and urinary bladder have the same basic histological structure with walls becoming thinner close to the bladder

False; the become thick toward bladder

63

What are the epithelium of the bladder

transitional epithelium (urothelium)

64

How many layers of muscularis externa (detruser muscle) does the bladder contain

3; inner longitudinal
outer circular
outermost longitudinal

65

What are the regions of the male urethra

prostatic
membranous
spongy

66

What epithelium lines the male urethra

prostatic; urothelium
membranous; stratified columnar
spongy; stratified columnar

67

What epithelium lines the female urethra

stratified squamous; occasionally pseudostratified columnar