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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (91):
1

DRI

Dietary Recommended Intake

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UL

Upper Limit- Toxicity Level

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AMDR

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (Percentage Breakdown of what you should be eating)

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RDA

Recommended Intake (Covers 97-98% Population) (Lots of research) (Like AI)

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EAR

Estimated Average Requirement

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AI

Adequate Intake- Low of what you need (Not lots of research, like RDA)

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6 Classes of Nutrients

Fats, Carbs, Protein, Vitamins, Minerals, Water

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Micronutrients

Small amounts- Vitamins and minerals

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Macronutrients

Large amounts- Energy. Carbs, Fats, Proteins, Water

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Essential Nutrient

Body does not produce this

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Organic Nutrient

Has carbon

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Adequacy

Provides all essential nutrients, fiber, energy

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Balance

Foods in proportion to each other (veggies and dairy not just dairy)

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Calorie Control

Control calorie intake

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Moderation

Enough but not excess

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Variety

Wide selection of food within food groups (carrots and broccoli not just carrots)

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Controlled Clinical Trial

Hospital or lab setting- control group and not compared

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Intervention Study

Researchers make participants do something

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Observational

Just observe

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Cohort Study

Observational; group of people over a period of time

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Cross Sectional Study

Observational; Group of people at one point in time

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Case Study

Not helpful in drawing conclusions- just one person

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Anecdote

Testimonial; not helpful in drawing conclusions

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Control

Doesn't receive treatment

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Placebo

Fake treatment

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Blinded

Unaware patients or researchers or both (double blind)

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Stages of Behavioral change

Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, moving on

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3 tsp

1 Tbsp

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16 Tbsp

1 Cup

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8 Fl oz

1 Cup

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2.2 Pounds

1 Kg

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4 Cups

1 Quart

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4 Tbsp

1 Cup

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16 oz

1 Pound

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454 g

1 pound

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1 g

1000 mg, 1000000 mcg

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pounds >> grams

Pounds/grams

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Fruit 2400 cal diet

2 cups

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1 cup fruit

2 cups dried fruit, 1 cup 100% fruit juice, 1 medium apple, 1 cup fruit

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Veggies 2400 calorie diet

3 cups

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1 cup veggies

1 cup legumes, 2 cups lettuce/salad, 1 cup veggies

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Milk 2400 calorie diet

3 cups

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1 cup milk

1 1/2 oz natural cheese; 2 oz processed cheese

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Protein 2400 calorie diet

6.5 oz

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1 oz protein

1 oz meat, 1 egg, 1 Tbsp peanut butter, 1/4 cup legumes, 1/2 oz nuts or seeds

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Grains 2400 calorie diet

8 oz

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1 oz grains

1 slice bread, 1 cup cereal, 1/2 cup cooked rice or pasta, 3 cups popped popcorn

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Fats 2400 calorie diet

3 tsp

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1 tsp fat equivalent

1 tsp oil, 2 Tbsp light salad dressing, 1 tsp light mayo

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Calorie needs affected by

Physical activity, age, gender

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Good source

10-19%

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High Source

20+%

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Poor Source

<10%

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Healthy

Low in saturated and trans fat, sodium, cholesterol, good source of at least one vitamin

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Amount calories from each macronutrient

Carbs- 45-65%
Fat- 20-35%
Proteins 10-35%

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Goal of Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA)

Decrease risk of chronic disease and obesity

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Pancreas

Accessory organ; makes enzymes to break down fats, carbs, protein

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Liver

Makes bile, stores glycogen

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Gall Bladder

Stores bile

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Mouth Digestion

Carbs begin; no protein or fat

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Stomach Digestion

Protein digestion begins; no carb or fat

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Small intestine Digestion

All other absorption and digestion (Fat, carbs, protein)

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Bile

breaks down fat, made by pancreas

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Absorption mechanisms

Villi and microvilli (Fingers on hand on perpendicular arm)

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Alcohol Pros

Moderate amounts may help with heart disease

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Alcohol Cons

Heart disease, cancer, fatty liver, become fatso, impair judgment, etc.

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Monosaccharides

Fructose, Glucose, Galactose

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Disaccharides

Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose

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Maltose made of

Glucose + Glucose

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Lactose made of

Galactose + Glucose

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Sucrose make of

Glucose + Fructose

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Polysaccharides

Glycogen, Starch, Fiber

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Glycogen

branches of glucose, stored in muscles and liver, storage form of glucose

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Starch

Grains

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Fiber

Not digested, from beans, helps with GI movement, blood glucose regulation, colon rectal cancers managed, weight control, heart disease prevented

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Whole Grains

Contains all part of grain

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Refined Grain

Only endosperm left- take out bran and germ

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Enriched Grain

Refined with nutrients added back

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1/2 grains should be

WHOLE

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Carbs stored as

Glucose, then glycogen, then fat

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Protein storage

Not stored- used for function, disposed of

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Fat stored as

Fat

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Minerals/vitamin storage

some stored for short periods, others water soluble

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Lactose Intolerance

Later onset, lack enzyme to digest milk SUGAR, non-Caucasians, treatment- limit milk, causes GI Distress

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Milk Allergy

Infancy onset, Antibodies formed against protein, avoid milk temporarily, breastfeeding prevents this, often temporary

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Type 1 Diabetes

Younger, thinner people, auto-immune, body stops making insulin, treatment: insulin injections, carb counting/monitor glucose

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Type 2 Diabetes

Older people, generally obese; body develops insulin resistance; treatment: Oral medications, balance carbs decrease calories (weight loss)

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Diabetes Symptoms

Loss of feeling in hands and feet, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, poor vision

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Insulin

Hormone that decreases blood sugar (carries glucose from blood to cells)

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Glucagon

Hormone that increases blood sugar (carries glucose from cells to blood)

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How to decrease blood sugar

Exercise (gets sugar out of blood and into the cells)