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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (49):
1

Columbian Exchange

Columbus went on an expedition and found New World/ Indian's population affected by disease, Spanish population expands/ trade of goods, people, and ideas

2

Encomienda system

tribute (tax) system where indigenous people supplied corn, cotton, beans, labor, and gold for protection from enemies and instruction in Catholicism.

3

primary source

first hand, often eye-witness account or recollection of events of time (speeches, reports, diaries)

4

secondary source

interpretations of a primary source

5

Northwest passage

passage to the Indies across North Atlantic. John Cabot was sent to look for it.

6

Middle ground

trade relationship that was never fully Indian, but resulted in Indians drawn into global economy

7

Mourning wars

loss of tribesman leads to killing or seizing an enemy warrior with the goal of filling the tribal void

8

headright system

new settlers who paid their own transportation to the Chesapeake received a grant of 50 acres of free land

9

indentured servitude (freedom dues)

poor individuals hired, 5 years of labor for passage, food, clothing, shelter
freedom dues: 3 barrels of corn, 2 suit of clothes, seeds, tools, 50 acres of land

10

covenant

contract between Puritans and God promising to build a godly society

11

Navigation acts

all tobacco to England on English ships is taxed, important crops were taxed as well.

12

Christopher Columbus

went form nothing to greatness, married into Portuguese royalty/ found New World by accident

13

Samuel de Champlain

explorer, non-nobility: inherits ship and fortune, "gov" of New France

14

Jesuits

missionaries, educators/ stress on rituals and Pope's authority, worked to counter Protestant Reformation

15

John Smith

explorer and military veteran/ adopted by Chief Powhatan

16

John Rolfe

husband of Pocahontas, found tobacco grows better in Virginia

17

Iroquois Confederacy

consisted of 6 constituent and Indian tribes

18

Hurons

Indians, French allies

19

Powhaten

chief, adopted John Smith, him and his people helped Jamestown survive and brought the people there food.

20

Pocahontas

daughter of Chief Powhaten, saved John Smith from being murdered

21

Bacon's Rebellion

dispute over Virginia's Indian policy/ rebellion causes leaders to question the need for indentured servants, moves towards slavery

22

Roger Williams

separation of church and state/ allowed to interpret the Bible in different ways/ Indians shouldn't be displaced by Europeans

23

Anne Hutchinson

critical of clergy/ held meetings at her house, banished and killed by Mohawk Indians

24

Stono Rebellion

slaves rebelled against masters by burning plantations and killing white people/ led to enforcement of Black Codes

25

plantation economy

based on agricultural mass production; a few staple products grown on large farms called plantations

26

Great Awakening

revitalization movement by Protestants in all colonies, required emotional commitment

27

Triangular Trade

European trade goods -- African Slave traders--colonies (raw goods)----Europe

28

Mercantilism

the world is a collection of nation states whose governments actively compete for shares of the world's finite amount of wealth

29

actual representation

in order to be taxed by Parliament, Americans rightly should have actual legislators seated and voting in London

30

virtual representation

belief that a member of Parliament virtually represented every person in the empire and there was no need for a specific representative from each colony.

31

Reformation

started by Martin Luther, challenged Catholic church: church spending, religious pardons, Latin Bibles and services

32

counter-reformation

Catholic revival, foundation of seminaries for proper training of priests, focus on devotional life and a personal relationship with Christ.

33

Spanish Armada's defeat

defeated by England, made England a world-class power and introduced long-range weapons into naval warfare

34

Jamestown

1st English settlement in the Americas. many settlers died the first year due to starvation, relied on the resources from the Indians.

35

Massachusetts Bay Colony

strongly Puritan society, intolerant to theory religious views, friction with other Indians led to King Philip's war which drove natives away.

36

English Civil War

armed conflict in England over its government, ended in the execution of Charles I, and replaced English monarchy with republican commonwealth

37

Restoration

restoration of English monarchy under Charles II

38

King Philip's War

conflict between Native Americans and English colonists, forced native to flee

39

Seven Year's War

Britain gained territory of New France, France and Great Britain suffered financially from long-term consequences

40

Pontiac's Rebellion

Native American tribes weren't satisfied with British postwar policies after the French and Indian war, led to decision to issue the Proclamation of 1763

41

Queen Elizabeth I

was at first a princess who was declared illegitimate, later claimed the throne at age 25 and ruled 44 years

42

King Charles I

he resolved to rule alone and dismissed parliament, wanted a High Anglican form of worship, was tried and executed for treason

43

King Charles II

desired for political tolerance and religious tolerance, dismissed parliament and ruled alone

44

John Winthrop

strict Puritan, 1st governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, wanted to establish a pure church that was a model for all others (city on a hill)

45

George Whitefield

Anglican, minister, traveled between colonies holding mass meetings and preaching, brought forth emotion and challenged old beliefs

46

Jonathan Edwards

Christian preacher and philosopher, critical role in shaping First Great Awakening and first revivals

47

Baptists

reject baptism as infants and done by full immersion in fully believing adults, First Great Awakening increased Baptist growth

48

Mary Jemison

taken captive at age 15 by Seneca Indian tribe. Became adopted as a member in the tribe and later got married to an Indian man

49

Proclamation Line of 1763

issued by Great Britain after French and Indian/Seven Years War, forbids all settlers from settling past a line drawn along Appalachian Mountains.