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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (77)
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1

What characteristics do all living organisms share?

They are composed of cells, they require nutrients and energy, they respond and adapt to change and they reproduce.

2

What are elements?

Pure forms of matter with the same number of proteins in the nucleus

3

What are the elements of life?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen & Nitrogen

4

What does the atomic number measure?

The number of protons and neutrons in an atom

5

What is an isotope?

An element with differing numbers of neutrons

6

What is an ion?

An element with an overall electrical charge because the protons and neutrons are uneven

7

What are some uses for radioactive elements?

PET scans, nuclear warfare, nuclear energy

8

What makes water unique and useful?

It is a solvent, it is cohesive, it is polar and it is temperature stable

9

What is temperature?

A measure of molecular motion

10

What are the molecules of life?

Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates and Nucleic Acids

11

Building blocks of proteins

amino acids

12

Building blocks of lipids

fatty acids

13

Building blocks of nucleic acids

nucleotides

14

Building blocks of Carbohydrates

simple sugars

15

What are functional groups?

Clusters of atoms bonded to a carbon backbone, which give elements specific properties

16

What is metabolism?

The way that cells acquire energy by splitting, constructing and restructuring organic compounds

17

What are enzymes and what do they do?

They are proteins that make the process of metabolism go faster

18

Monomers link to form

polymers

19

Example of a monosaccharide

glucose

20

Example of a disaccharide

table sugar

21

Examples of a polysaccharide

starch or cellulose

22

How is sugar often stored by organisms?

In a polysaccharide made of up called glycogen

23

What is chitin?

Nitrogen containing functional groups that attach to glucose monomers. Strengthens invertebrates

24

This molecule of life is a source of energy, and is waxy, non-polar and insoluble in water

Lipids

25

Saturated fatty acids

single bonds between all carbon atoms, solid at room temperature

26

unsaturated fatty acids

double bond between some fatty acids, liquid at room temperature

27

Lipids are called fats if

they have fatty acids attached to a glycerol

28

What is a triglyceride?

Three fatty acids attached to a glycerol

29

The most common type of steroid in animals

cholesterol

30

Examples of triglycerides

butter, lard, vegetable oil