Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (77)
What characteristics do all living organisms share?
They are composed of cells, they require nutrients and energy, they respond and adapt to change and they reproduce.
What are elements?
Pure forms of matter with the same number of proteins in the nucleus
What are the elements of life?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen & Nitrogen
What does the atomic number measure?
The number of protons and neutrons in an atom
What is an isotope?
An element with differing numbers of neutrons
What is an ion?
An element with an overall electrical charge because the protons and neutrons are uneven
What are some uses for radioactive elements?
PET scans, nuclear warfare, nuclear energy
What makes water unique and useful?
It is a solvent, it is cohesive, it is polar and it is temperature stable
What is temperature?
A measure of molecular motion
What are the molecules of life?
Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates and Nucleic Acids
Building blocks of proteins
Building blocks of lipids
Building blocks of nucleic acids
Building blocks of Carbohydrates
What are functional groups?
Clusters of atoms bonded to a carbon backbone, which give elements specific properties
What is metabolism?
The way that cells acquire energy by splitting, constructing and restructuring organic compounds
What are enzymes and what do they do?
They are proteins that make the process of metabolism go faster
Monomers link to form
Example of a monosaccharide
Example of a disaccharide
Examples of a polysaccharide
starch or cellulose
How is sugar often stored by organisms?
In a polysaccharide made of up called glycogen
What is chitin?
Nitrogen containing functional groups that attach to glucose monomers. Strengthens invertebrates
This molecule of life is a source of energy, and is waxy, non-polar and insoluble in water
Saturated fatty acids
single bonds between all carbon atoms, solid at room temperature
unsaturated fatty acids
double bond between some fatty acids, liquid at room temperature
Lipids are called fats if
they have fatty acids attached to a glycerol
What is a triglyceride?
Three fatty acids attached to a glycerol
The most common type of steroid in animals