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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (37)
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1

habituation

allowing the horse to naturally adjust to their surroundings, desensitization

2

sensitization

increasing reactivity or fear

3

Vision

both monocular and binocular, have blind spots in front of and behind them, uses head moment to focus, excellent peripheral vision

4

hearing

well developed, horses have mobile ears

5

smell

used to identify heard mates, predators, food ext.

6

touch

allows for means of communication between horses, sensitive areas on body

7

factors influencing herd position

Dam's status, age, gender, athleticism, temperament and attitude

8

agonistic

applies to all behaviors resulting from or associated with conflict

9

allelomimetic

horses do the same things at the same time ex. eating, drinking, spooking

10

vigilance

horses are by nature very alert, at least one horse is always standing in a group

11

epimeletic

giving care of or attention to, causes the release of feel good hormones

12

et-epimeletic

care-seeking behavior

13

investigative behavior

curiosity about unfamiliar things ex. ears alert, raising and lowering head, sniffing/nudging

14

ingestive behavior

eat and walk patterns up to 80% of the day, consume water 1-2 times per day

15

eliminative behavior

elimination and placement of urine and feces, in pastures horses choose a rough area for feces, stress induces elimination

16

sexual behavior

mares seek out stallion, urinate frequently and raise tail. stallions sniff, flehmen response and bite

17

cognition

mental processing and problem solving, horses have limited abilities in understanding time, life and death ext, horse brain has less cortex and more cerebellum

18

discrimination

horses can discriminate visual patterns and food rewards, but cannot generalize or learn tasks from eachother

19

memory

horses show good memory, makes it hard to untrain

20

early training

used to accept touch, give to pressure, head restraint, respecting space

21

imprint training

systematic desensitization of neonates, occurs during the bonding period, research not supportive of this. can make foals more fearful of people, larger flight zones ect

22

classical conditioning

aka signal learning, stimulus/response, ex. pavlov's dog bell=food

23

unconditioned response

natural, instinctive reaction ex. horse moves away when handler moves behind point of balance

24

conditioned response

learned response ex. horse moves forward after hearing a cluck

25

primary reinforcement

based on natural instinctive needs ex. food, water, air, sleep

26

secondary reinforcement

stimuli presented with primary reinforcement

27

appetitive stimulus

horse as perceives positive or pleasurable

28

aversive stimulus

horse perceives as negative or painful

29

positive reinforcement

addition of something ex. giving food or adding aversive stimulus

30

negative reinforcement

removal of something, removal of aversive stimulus