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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (52):
1

What are LSD, PCP, ecstasy, and "molly" classified as?

Hallucinogens

1

Why is it difficult to do double blind experiments/studies on steroids?

Those receiving steroids constantly are able to determined they're getting the drug rather than the placebo

2

What is the misconception of caffeine?

Since caffeine increases concentration, people are expected to do better in school/work but those who regularly use caffeine do more poorly on study oriented tasks than people who use minimal amounts of coffee

2

Does caffeine cause cancer?

Caffeine either has no effect or can possibly decrease risks of cancer

2

What drugs treat disease?

Antibiotics and over the counter drugs

3

What is the slowest way to get drugs into your system?

Orally

3

What are signs of caffeine withdrawal?

Headaches, fatigue, decreased vigor Headaches are the most consistent withdrawal symptom

3

What has the most caffeine?

Coffee

3

What classifies something as a drug?

Anything that is intended for use in: "diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of a disease

3

What are examples of outpatient treatment?

Partial Hospitalization, Intensive outpatient, and Traditional outpatient

4

What are prozac and zoloft classified as?

Psychotherapeutics

4

What is the quickest way to get drugs into your system?

Inhalation

4

What are examples of impatient treatment?

Detoxification Centers, Impatient Centers, and Residential Treatment

4

What is withdrawal?

Substance-specific syndrome than results after an individual stops using the drug. When the concentration of the substance in an individuals body decreases, the body creates a physiological response

5

What medications treat mental health illnesses?

Psychotherapeutics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, ECT, mood stabalizers

6

What neurotransmitter is found in most areas of the brain and exerts generalized inhibitory functions?

GABA

8

What neurotransmitter is also found throughout the brain that makes cells more excitable?

Glutamate

9

How does social learning theory play a role in addiction?

Addiction is a learned response. Environment influences development whether positive or negative

10

What is the most commonly abused drug by teens?

"Triple C's"

11

What does mental illness as a disease propose?

Symptoms lead to diagnosis of the disease. Diagnosis leads to ascertainment of the cause. Understanding the cause allows for a suggestion of a cure.

12

What neurotransmitter is made up of endogenous substances that produce effects similar to morphine and other opioids?

Endorphins

13

What neurotransmitter is associated with weight regulation, food intake, impulsive aggressiveness, excessive alcohol consumption, and occurrence of suicide?

Seratonin

16

What system is associated with emotion, memory, location, and level of physical activity?

Limbic system

18

What neurotransmitter is associated with the reward of substances?

Dopamine

19

What percent of placebo effects are successful?

35%

20

How many deaths occur from tobacco?

440,000/yr. or about 20% of all deaths in the US 85% of deaths are related to lung cancer 30% of deaths are from cancer due to smoking 30% of cardiovascular deaths are related to smoking 80%-90% of deaths result from chronic obstructive lung disease

22

What are morphine, oxycontin, heroin, codeine, methadone, and percocet classified as?

Opiods

23

What are coke, amphetamines, and caffeine classified as?

Stimulants

25

What is the function of the glia?

The creation of the blood brain barrier. This separates the blood and fluid that surround the brain.

27

What percent of teens abuse OTC medication

10% (1/10)

27

What is the biological aspect of addiction?

The drug becomes integrated in the new homeostasis of the body because of frequent use. Long period use leads to neurochemical and structural changes in the brain.

29

What is the nicotine content in cigars?

Extremely toxic Enough nicotine in 1 cigar to kill 2 humans

30

What are alcohol, barbiturates, and inhalants classified as?

Depressants

31

What does the monoamine theory of mood state?

Too little activity of monoamines can cause depression and too much can cause an excited mood (mania). Drugs that affect these neurotransmitter alter mood states. This theory accounts for many of the basic drug effects on mood

32

How does tobacco get into the blood stream?

It gets absorbed in the mucous membrane of the mouth

33

What is associated with hormonal output and involved in feeding drinking, temperature regulation, and sexual behavior?

Hypothalamus

34

What are the 7 neurotransmitters?

Dopamine, Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Seratonin, GABA, Glutamate, and Endorphins

35

What are the Stages of Change?

Pre-contemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Relapse

37

What are the categories of over the counter drugs?

Stimulants (coffee only) Weight loss pills Analgesics Sleep Aids

38

What are the health risks of caffeine?

Decrease in fertility, may cause miscarriages in pregnant women, may cause low birth weight and slow fetus growth. People who consume 5 or more cups of coffee daily are about 2.5x more likely to experience coronary heart disease than non-drinkers

39

What are the mg of caffeine in coffee, cola, and red bull?

Coffee 115 mg Cola 30 mg Redbull 80 mg

40

Where do we get most drugs?

Nature

41

What is more important for one to have; internal or external motivation?

They are equal. One is not more important than the other.

43

Which neurotransmitter is associated with initiation of REM sleep? Depletion of this is thought to play a role in Alzheimers disease.

Acetylcholine

44

What is the difference between addiction and dependence?

Dependence isn't used as a diagnosis. Addiction: individuals who experience tolerance and withdrawals with repeated use of a given substance despite negative consequences Dependence: the quality or condition of relying on, being influenced by, or being subservient to a substance reflecting a particular need

46

What parts of the brain are directly related to drug and alcohol abuse?

The limbic system and hypothalamus

47

What are the classifications of drugs?

Stimulants, Hallucinogens, Marijuana, Nicotine, Depressants, Opiods, and Psychotherapeutics

48

What is DSM criteria and how many are needed for a diagnosis?

Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Each substance has its own diagnostic criteria with specifics and severity indicators. "Impaired control, Social impairment, Risky use, and Pharmacological criteria" Mild: 2-3 symptoms Moderate: 4-5 Severe: 6 or more

49

What is a "bottom"?

This is when an addict believes they can go no lower. They have reached the bottom of the spiral of addiction

50

What are/were the medical uses for tobacco?

Was used medicinally for everything from headaches to abscesses and sores on the head

51

What is ECT?

Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy This is most effective for severely depressed patients. ECT is more rapid than antidepressants

52

What is the FDA?

Federal Drug Administration Classifies what is and isn't a drug. Labeling is regulated by them.