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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (96):
1

When to prepare medication (injection, etc) for toddler

right before procedure

2

When to prepare medication (injection, etc) for school-aged child

a few days in advance

3

When to prepare medication (injection, etc) for preschool aged child

1 hour before procedure

4

When to prepare medication (injection, etc) for adolescent

up to 1 week prior to procedure

5

what position should newborn be in when giving oral meds

semi-reclining

6

what position should toddler be in when giving oral meds?

sitting upright

7

absorption of rectal medications is directly related to what?

the time the medication is in the rectum

8

If need to cut rectal med in half,

cut it length-wise

9

What position should child be if giving a rectal medication?

left lateral position
OR
knee to chest position

10

Insert suppository:
- Adult?
- Child?
- Infant?

Adult - 10 cm (4 in)
Child - 7.6 cm (3 in)
Infant - 5 cm (2 in)

11

If child closes eye tightly when giving eye medication,

instill drops into nasal corner of the closed eye.
*If applying more than 1 type of eye drop, wait 5 min between drops to prevent one from washing other out.

12

Best time to give eye meds?

before nap (slide 24 review)

13

Most important thing to do when giving eye meds?

gently massage conjunctival sac (corner of eye) for 1 minute to make sure that it only goes into eye and doesn’t become systemic.

14

How should child be sitting for eye meds?

supine or sitting and looking up

15

How should child be sitting for otic meds?

upright or supine with head turned with affected ear up

16

How to give ear meds for child older than 3 years old?

pull pinna upward and back

OPUB

17

How to give ear meds for child younger than 3 years old?

pull earlobe down and back

YEDB

18

SubQ meds: what size syringe and needle

1 mL syringe with 26-30 gauge needle

19

SubQ meds: what angle to give shot?

90 degrees (or 45 degrees for very thin child)

20

Appropriate sites to give subQ meds:

- anterior thighs
- lateral upper arms
- area around belly button

21

What should volume be for subQ meds?

less than 0.5 mL

22

What size needle should be used for IM meds?

22-25 gauge, 1/2 - 1 in needle

23

What is muscle of choice when giving children IM injection?

vastus lateralis

24

Positions child should be in for IM in vastus lateralis?
How much can infants receive in this muscle?
And children?

supine, side-lying, or sitting
Infants can receive up to 0.5 mL
Children can receive up to 2 mL

25

How much IM med can be given to a child in the deltoid?

up to 1 mL

26

Nasal DROPS should be held where in relation to nose?

1/2 inch above nares

27

child should keep head tilted for how long after receiving nasal DROPS

3-5 min

28

What position should child be in for nasal SPRAY?

semi-fowlers

29

What should child do after receiving nasal spray?

hold breath for a few seconds then exhale through the mouth

30

What size catheters for IV fluids?

24 to 20 gauge

31

where would access be for long term IV fluids?

central venous access

32

How many hours of feeds (NG/GT/JT) should be at a time?

4 hrs of feeds at a time

33

How often should placement of NG/GT/JT and/or residual be checked?

every 4 hours

34

When do children see biggest growth spurt?

infancy and adolescence

35

how do children grow?

cephalocaudal (head to toe)

36

Infancy (birth - 12 months) is what stage?

trust vs mistrust

37

Infancy is a period of rapid growth, what happens during this time period?

Gain 5-7 ounces per week

By 6 months, double birthweight
By 12 months, triple birthweight and have 6-8 teeth

Height increases by 1 inch per month for 6 months.

38

Organ systems that are still maturing within first year?

Neurologic
Respiratory
Cardiovascular
Gastrointestinal
Genitourinary
Integumentary

39

when does head lag greatly improve in an infant?

2-3 months

40

when can infant begin to roll around and look at things?

4 months

41

When can infant usually tripod sit?

6 months

42

When can infant sit unsupported?

8 months

43

When does an infant typically begin to crawl?

9 months

44

What age does infant start pulling to stand?

10 month

45

At what age do infants start trying to walk independently?

12 months

46

What age can infant sit alone but still needs support from hands

7 months

47

Reflex

Trigger: Loud noise (even baby’s own cry!), sudden movement, or sensation of falling

Response: Baby cries and extends legs, arms, and fingers, arches back, then retracts arms and legs

Moro Reflex

48

Reflex:

Trigger: A gentle stroke on the newborn’s cheek

Response: Baby turns toward the touch, with mouth open

Root Reflex

49

Trigger: Something, such as a nipple (breast or bottle) or parent’s finger, touching roof of baby’s mouth

Response: Baby sucks on object

Suck Reflex

50

place finger palm or foot and they will try and grasp that

Plantar/Palmar Grasp Reflex

51

hold baby up and they pretend like they are going to stand and walk – should go away by 4 weeks

Step Reflex

52

Trigger: A gentle stroke on the sole of the foot (from heel to toe)
Response: Foot turns in and toes flare up

--Doesn't leave until 8mos-1 year

Babinski Reflex

53

Fine motor skills at 1 month

fists are mostly clenched and near face

54

Fine motor skills at 3 months

fists open up some but are still mainly by face

55

Fine motor skills at at 4 months

begin to bat at things

56

Fine motor skills at 5 months

begin to grasp things like a rattle (because they really want to)

57

Fine motor skills at 6-7 months

begin to transfer things from 1 hand to the other

58

Fine motor skills at 8 months

Gross Pincer Grasp (raking at cheerios)

59

Fine motor skills at 10 months

Fine Pincer Grasp (picking cheerios up 1 by 1); puts objects into container and takes them out

60

Fine motor skills at 12 months

Feeds self with cup and spoon
simple marks on paper
pokes with index finger

61

Language at 1-3 months:

cooing, crying

62

Language at 4-5 months:

simple vowel sounds, laughs, raspberries
*responds to name

63

Language at 4-7 months:

squealing and yelling
Mama and Dada without meaning

64

Language at 9-12 months:

Mama and Dada with meaning
3-5 words

65

At what age do babies start to know who parents are?

2 months

66

At what age do babies begin to enjoy games like peek-a-boo?

6-8 months

67

When does stranger anxiety develop?

8 months

68

______ is referred to as the "how" of behavior -- can start to tell if baby will be laid back, etc.

Temperament

69

What ages are considered to be toddlers?

12 -36 months (1-3 years)

70

Toddler Growth facts:

gains 4-6 lbs/year
birth weight is quadrupled by 2 1/2 years old
Height increases about 3 inches per year

71

When does anterior fontanel close?

12-18 months**

72

When do sphincter controls for bladder or bowel develop? (important for anticipatory guidance for parents)

18-24 months

73

Toddlers stage of Erikson's development
*

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
(*This is when time out starts)
- punishment vs reward
- egocentric

74

At what age does gender identity begin?

3 years old

75

Toddler Gross Motor Skills: at 12-15 months

walks independently

76

Toddler Gross Motor Skills at 18 months

pulls toys while walking

77

Toddler Gross Motor Skills at 24 months

carries toys while walking, stand on tip toe, kick ball, run

78

Toddler Gross Motor Skills at 36 months

climbs well, pedals tricycle, bends over easily without falling, climbs stairs with alternate feet.

79

At what age can a child ride a tricycle? (NCLEX question)

3 years old.

80

Toddler fine motor skills at 12-15 months

feeds self finger foods, uses a cup

81

Toddler fine motor skills at 18 months

masters reaching, grasping, releasing
removes shoes and socks
turns pages of book

82

Toddler fine motor skills at 24 months

builds tower of 6-7 cubes
right or left handed

83

Toddler fine motor skills at 36 months

undresses self
copies circle, square, etc
holds pencil in writing position

84

When may separation anxiety reemerge?

between 18 - 24 months

85

Preschooler ages:

3-6 years

86

Erikson's Stage for Preschoolers:

Initiative vs Guilt

87

At what age/stage do children begin to regress if they get sick?

Preschooler age (3-6 years)

88

At what age can a child draw a person with 2 to 4 parts?

4 years old

89

at 5 years old, children can draw a person with how many body parts?

at least 6

90

At what age is 75% of speech understood by others outside of family?

4 years old

91

At 5 years of age, child's language includes

- talking about past, future, and imaginary events
- count to 10
- say name and address

92

At what stage do chlildren believe that if they or family members/friends are sick, it is completely their fault?

Preschooler age (3-6 years)

93

School age children (6-12 year olds) height and weight increases by what?

height: 2 in/ year
Weight: 2-4 kg/year

94

School age children Erikson stage

Industry vs Inferiority

95

When does average teen girl go through puberty?

9-12 years old

96

What age should you measure weight and head circumference until

36 months