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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (212)
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1

How many genes do humans have?

~22,000

2

How many genes do bacteria have?

~8,000,000

3

Most of the genes we carry around in our body originate from where?

bacteria (8,000,000 genes- 1% pathologic, 99% beneficial)

4

What is the order infants are exposed to microbes?

skin--> oropharynx--> GI tract--> othermucuos memebranes

5

Types of Virulence factors of bacteria

1. Adhesins (to attach to host tissue)
2. Capsules (to evade immune system)
3. Antibody proteases
4. Destructive enzymes
5. Toxin systems (endo or exotoxins)

6

bacterias can secrete what type of toxins

exotoxins

7

what type of toxins are part of the bacteria

endotoxins

8

Time from the infection to the onset of symptoms

incubation period

9

transient or permanent microbes; does not interefere with the host

colonization

10

encounter with the organism, elicts an immune response; can be asymptomatic and without disease

infection

11

when microbes get into your body and your body has a response

infection

12

damage caused to the host, the onset of symptoms

disease

13

simple cell wall

gram +

14

thin pepptidoglycan cell wall layer

gram -

15

complex cell wall

gram -

16

LPS

on outer layer of gram - and stimulates inflammation

17

do gram + have LPS on outer surface

no

18

retains sanfranin stain

gram -

19

retains crystal violet/iodine stain

gram +

20

dyes blue/purple

gram +

21

dyes red/pink

gram -

22

exotoxins typically come from what type of bacteria

mostly gram +

23

endotoxins typically come from what type of bacteria

gram -

24

what type of toxins are stable and can withstand autoclaving (121 degrees C for 1 hr)

enotoxins

25

what toxins are more likely to cause disease

exotoxins

26

presents in LPS of outer membrane of cell wall and released with destruction of cell during cell division

endotoxins

27

what toxinis a metabolic product of growing cells

exotoxin

28

what toxin can causea fever?

endotoxins

29

Largest/ most important gram - group and where are they found

enterobacteriacceae
- soil, water, vegietation, part of normal intestinal flora (ubiquitous)

30

enterobacteriaecceae colonization

CNS, Lower respiratory tract, bloodstream, GI tract, UI tract