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1

what are the two main types of cells?

prokaryotic and eukaryotic

2

what are the two main classes of prokaryotic cells?

bateria and archea

3

what does a prokaryote look like?

single circular strand of DNA surrounded by a cell membrane and a cell wall

4

whats smaller? prokaryote or eukaryote?

prokaryotes

5

what are the two main eukaryotic cells?

plant and animal

6

what do all eukaryotes have?

nucleus,
plasma membrane,
mitochondria, and
cytoskeleton

7

what are two features that only plant cells have?

chloroplasts and cell walls

8

what is the role of the nucleus?

holds the DNA

9

what is the plasma membrane?

surrounds the cell in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

10

what is the mitochondria?

powerhouses of the cell

11

what are chloroplasts?

take in light energy and convert into sugar

12

what is the cytoskeleton?

provides suppport
provides "tracks" for transportation

13

what is a cell wall?

hard structure surrounding plasma membrane

14

what are proteins?

made of amino acids

15

what are the 3 types of amino acids?

nonpolar, polar and charged

16

when are proteins functional?

as 3D folded structures

17

how many levels of folding are there for a protein?

4 and every protein has the first 3

18

what is primary structure?

sequence of a chain of amino acids

19

what is the role of primary structure?

determines how all of the rest of the structure is created

20

what is the formation of primary structure?

hydrophilic outside, hydrophobic inside

21

when is primary structure used?

for proteins that are found in "water rich environments"

22

what is an exception to the primary structure rule?

transmembrane regions (work oppositely)

23

what is secondary structure?

backbone based structures

24

what are the 2 types of secondary structures?

alpha helix and beta sheets

25

what does an alpha helix look like?

helix with side chains sticking out in all different directions

26

what do beta sheets look like?

crinkled sheet with side chains alternating sticking out the back and front

27

what is a tertiary structure?

combining of secondary structures into a folded structure

28

where can you find tertiary structures?

in ALL proteins

29

what is a quaternary structure?

more than one amino acid chain

30

do all proteins have quaternary structures?

no