Flashcards in Exam #1 Deck (55):
The difference between "policy analysis" and "policy advocacy" is that the latter focuses on
Finding a policy that matches a group's preferred goal.
Which stage of the policy process focuses on how a problem or potential policy becomes a serious topic for political discussion?
Once a policy has been adopted, the next step in the policy process is to develop the mechanisms by which this policy will be applied. This stage of the policy process is known as
The question "Did the policy work?" is answered in which stage of the policy process?
A policy that benefits a specific group but the costs are paid by all taxpayers is a ____________ policy.
A policy requiring lawyers to be licensed by the state is an example of what type of policy?
____________ policies are difficult to enact because they reallocate wealth or power.
A "collective good" benefits
All, since the benefits are indivisible
A criticism of the political systems theory is that it typically
Involves a "black box" which fails to explain the process by which political decisions are made.
The theory that a small number of people control government decisions is known as _______ theory.
Studies that focus on the rules and structures of government entities, such as Congress or the courts, are most likely using a ______________ framework.
Applying the __________ model to Congress suggests that members of Congress enact policies to insure their reelection.
All states that have capital punishment laws sentence a similar number of convicted murders to death.
While the "simple majority rule model" assumes that public policy follows the preferences of the public, the _____________ model suggests that existing public policy may shape public opinion.
In 1972, the U.S. Supreme Court in Furman v. Georgia overturned all of the capital punishment laws used in the states. It did so because these laws were applied unequally across criminal cases. The response of the states to this Supreme Court ruling was
Most of the states which had death penalty laws before this ruling reenacted new laws to meet the new Supreme Court criteria.
States with higher execution rates in the 1940-1989 period also had a higher rate of sentencing convicted murders to the death penalty in the 1993 - 1995 period. This fact supports the _______ model.
States with the ___________ political culture should be more likely to frequently use a death penalty law, because values in these states tend to protect the existing social order and stress maintaining law and order.
In the 1990s, the public in states that did not have capital punishment laws were ______ supportive of the death penalty than residents of states that did have capital punishment laws.
In states with a large number of _____________ the public is less supportive of the death penalty.
Professor Norrander's article suggests that the best explanation of capital punishment practices in the U.S. states is that of
A historical causal chain.
In the "hollow state" the government contracts out the provision of government programs to
All of the above
One aspect of the hollow state is that there is (are) _______ link(s) between the source of the funding and the entity that ultimately delivers the service to the clientele.
Multiple Levels of
The best way to describe the organization of entities providing these government-funded services is as a
Network of Agencies
One problem with the hollow state is that it is often difficult to determine who is accountable for what.
To improve efficiency, it is often best if contracts are rebid on a yearly basis.
In the hollow state, responsibility for policy _______ is often assigned to state governments while policy ________ is done by local government agencies, nonprofits and private firms.
Government and nongovernment mechanisms that provide collective benefits to a population.
The hollow state has only been used in the United States and not in other countries.
Policy evaluation is done frequently in the hollow state to ensure that all programs are effective.
In Arizona's behavioral health system, the substance abuse and mental health block grant comes from the ___________.
In the hollow state, managers engage in __________ the agencies delivering the government services.
All of the above
In their study of mental health services in four communities, Milward and Provan found that all four communities used the same structure to organize the delivery of mental health services to their community.
For mental health services, typically a single provider provides talk therapy, a place for the seriously mentally ill to receive care and group therapy during the day, group housing, inpatient psychiatric facility and a suicide hotline
A "social dilemma" is defined as a situation where individual actors working to ______ their short-term benefits leaves all participants __________ in the long run.
Maximize; worse off
An example of a social dilemma is when cuts to the mental health budget for Phoenix led to single agencies lobbying to defend their own budgets, accusations of mismanagement, and law suits rather than cooperating in reorganizing the existing network of providers.
In the public and nonprofit sectors, change often is adopted for its own sake rather than to solve problems.
In a "principle-agent" relationship, the principle _________ the policy and the agent ________ the policy.
An important component of hollow state contracting is to
Work to develop trust within the network of providers
A well-funded program always results in an effective program.
Milward and Provan found that public policy can be effectively delivered by the hollow state when a reasonable level of funding is combined with an institutional design that creates incentives for agents to perform as promised and the system is stable.
The earliest theoretical works on the value of democracy, such as those by Aristotle and Plato, argued that democratic rule would result in
The election of demagogues leading to despotism.
The writers of the U.S. Constitution were influenced by Enlightenment-era (1600s-1700s) democratic theorist such as Locke and Montesquieu. According to these democratic theorists, the protection of individual freedom required a government in which
A constitution limited the powers of the majority.
The core component of a minimalist definition of democracy is
In democratic theory, the term "liberal" means
Protection of individual rights
Equality under the law, constraints on executive and military authority, protection of minority rights, freedom of expression and organization, and the rule of law are characteristics of what type of democracy?
What distinguishes authoritarian governments from democracies and pseudo-democracies?
Lack of independent opposition political parties
According to Dahl, "effective participation" entails
Citizens having an equal opportunity to express their preferences
Which of the following IS NOT a necessary criteria for "voting equality" according to Dahl?
Must entail the use of majority voting rules
Dahl's "enlightened understanding" criteria for a democracy requires citizens to have the means and opportunity to fully understand how proposed policies will affect their own interests.
Dahl's criteria for "control of the agenda" means
Citizens have direct or indirect influence on the selection of a wide range of issues for political choices.
Which of the following IS NOT one of the two core principles for a country to be considered a polyarchy?
A federal structure is required, with separate authority for local, state and national governments
A country in which adult women do not have the right to vote would still be considered to meet the criteria of a polyarchy?
A country in which those under 25 could not run for political office would still be considered to meet the criteria of a polyarchy?
Political parties and/or interest groups are essential for a country to be classified as a polyarchy?