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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (70):
1

life span

longest number of years any member of a speies has been known to survive

2

life expectancy

the average number of years at death--the number of years people in a given population can expect to live

3

life expectancy 1900 vs 2009

male vs female

47 vs 78.2

80.6 females
75.7 males

4

resilience

the ability to survive difficulties in life through healthy coping mechanisms and the discovery of internal and eternal strengths, such as family, neighbors, or spirituality

5

chronological aging

based on years from beirth

6

biological/functional age

based on physical function (ability/disability)

7

psychological age

based on cognitive abilities (memory, intelligence)

8

social age

based on social roles and relationships (student?)

9

subjective age

"you're as young as you feel"

10

birth cohort

group of people who were born at approximately the same time and therefore share many common experiences

11

longitudinal study

measures the same person over a specified period of time, typically years

12

cross-sectional study

compares people of different chronological ages at the same measurement period

13

sequential designs

cohort-sequential
time-sequential
cross-sequential

14

cohort-sequential study

two or more cohorts or groups are followed for a period of time so that measurements are taken of different cohorts at the same ages but at different points in time

15

time-sequential

compares two or more cross-sectional samples at two or more measurement periods (distinguishes between age and time of measurement or historical factors)

16

cross-sequential

cross sectional + longitudinal

17

Baby boomers

born between 1946-64 (end of WWII)

18

population aging

increase in the size of the peopulation age 65+ and a gain in the average age of a population

19

life expectancy

the average length of time one could expect to live if one were born in a particular year and if death rates were to remain constant

20

crossover effect

although African Am. have a lower life expectancy than white people, those who live to 75 have a life expectancy after 75 greater than for whites

21

maximum life span

length of years a given species could expect to live if all environmental hazards were eliminated

22

dependency ratio

number of people age 65+ to every 100 people of traditional working ages (18-64)

23

support ratio

% of population that is employed to unemployed

24

"Blue Zones"

places with large numbers of long-living residents who share healthy lifestyles, diets, engagement in their community, and a positive worldview

25

old-old age

age group 75-84

26

oldest old

age group 85+, currently the largest growing

27

hardiness

genetic factors that determine how well an older person copes with disease or other stressors in their lives

28

compression of morbidity / Longevity Dividend

lengthening the period of youthful vigor and experiencing only a few years of major illness in very old age

- implies that premature death is minimized because disease and functional decline are not compressed into a brief period of 3-5 year before death
- trend has NOT continued

29

dependent life expectancy + active life expectancy trends

= longer dependent, shorter active

30

filial piety

respect your elders and ancestors

31

modernization theory

the transformation of a society from a relatively rural way of life toward an urban way, with highly differentiated institutions and individual roles

- modernized societies have a cosmopolitan outlook that emphasizes efficiency and progress

- youth gain power, symbols of progress, while the older people lose respect through urbanization, communication tech, health tech, science tech used in economic production and distribution, literacy and mass education

32

gerontology

the field of study that focuses on understanding the biological, psychological, social, and political factors that influence people's lives

33

Geriatrics

clinical study and treatment of older people and the diseases that affect them

34

who are the elderly?

1. healthy, community-dwelling
2. community-dwelling with 1+ chronic disease
3. community-dwelling with ADL or IADL dependence
4. Nursing home (43% at some point in their life will be in a nursing home)
5. hospitalized

35

most common chronic conditions affecting older persons

hypertension
arthritis
heart disease

36

Geriatric Syndromes

dementia (Alz a form)
delirium (transient)
incontinence
sensory impairment
malnutrition
osteoporosis
falls and immobility
pressure ulcers
polypharmacy

37

Basic ADLs

bathing
dressing
going to the toilet
transferring
continence
feeding

38

IADLs (Intermediate)

phone
shopping
meal prep
housekeeping
doing laundry
public transport
take meds
handle finances

39

Advanced activities of Daily Living (AADLs)

patient specific functional activities (e.g. recreational, occupational, community service)

40

demographic transition

stage 1: high birth, high death
stage 2: high birth, declining death
stage 3: low birth, low death

41

epidemiologic transition

explains dem. transition, caused of death change from infection and malnutrrition diseases --> chronic disease

stage 1: infection/malnut
stage 2: decline infect/malnut, increase in chronic disease
stage 3: predominantly chronic diseaess

adequate food supply, clean water, sanitation systems , pub health interventions

42

usa leading causes of death 1900 vs 2009

1900: pneumonia, TB, diarrheal
2009: heart disease, cancer, stroke

43

SSDI - social security disability insurance

one of the only public programs that can help under 65+ people who are unable to get a job because they are disabled -- their retirement plan has become SSDI income

44

bio perspective

vulnerability (skin, falls, cardiovascular system) hereditary/enviro interactions, evolution of lifespan

45

social perspective

role changes, economics, family & support networks, policy implications

46

psychological perspective

developmental stages, personal life events, coping and adaptation

47

life course framework

an approach to the study of aging that emphasizes how the experiences of individuals (biography) interact with individual's place in the social system (sociocultural) and the historical period (sociohistorical) in which they live

individual factors (life events) + historical factors (war, movements) + socio/cultural factors (race, gender, econo)

48

issues in life course research
age/period/cohort problem

age effect: change/event that occurs as a result of advanced aging

period effect: impact of a historical event on the entire society

cohort effect: impact of a group bounded by time or a common life experience

49

Systems approach pyramid (top-down)

genetic factors
disease
individual lifestyle
family support
health and social services
state and national policy
WHO

50

systems approach

1. system composed of set of related parts
2. general living systems theory describes how all living systems work
3. living systems are self-organizing and open to interacting with their environment
4. system levels are hierarchical, interactive, and interdependent

51

ex: systems approach to influenza

1. genetic resistnce/cell response to virus
2. lungs
3. high risk groups: older, comorbidities, immunocompromised
4. LA county public health dept
5. epidemic surveillance in US (CDC)
6. WHO monitors influenza virus types

52

3 perspectives total

biopsychosocial framework helps us understand the person in relationship to smaller and larger systems

lifecourse perspective related the person to the time as well as the larger systems

53

people over 65 (demographics)

1900: 4.1
2009: 12.8 (3x)
2030: 1 in 5
2050: almost equal number from birth to age 18

54

median age 1900 vs 2009:

23 --> 37

55

demography based on shifts in?

fertility
mortality
migration

studies characteristics of human populations

56

migration effects on demographics

most migrants are relatively young

only 8% growth of older population is from immigration

higher immigration and birth rates of hispanic and asian populations add to the "youth" of the US

57

epidemiology

study of patterns of mortality and morbidity in populations

morbidity: any ill health, excludes death

58

global aging
top proportions of 65+ (percentages)

1997: all european + japan
2025: japan + european
2050: europe + japan

59

global aging
top absolute number 65+

1997: China, india, US, Jap, europe, Indonesia
2025: china, india, us, + brazil, italy
2050: china, india, us, indonesia, brazil, + mx, bangladesh, pakistan

60

avg. life expectancies over time (more/less developed, world) 1970 --> 2050

more developed: 71 --> 83

less developed: 55.5 --> 76

world: 59.5 --> 77

61

differences in US aging

we are living 30 years longer than they did 100 years ago

62

US life expectancy at birth vs. other countries

we dont' make the top 10

63

effects of ageist attitudes (when older individuals apply neg. age stereotypes to themselves)

greater cardiovascular response to stress
worse health behaviors (higehr tobacco use)

64

effects of ageist attitudes (when younger individuals hold neg. age stereotypes)

greater likelihood of cardiovascular events compared to individuals with more positive stereotypes

65

assessment of the elderly patient

medical
cognitive
affective
functional (physical/social)
economic
social support/caregiver
environmental
quality of life/well being
advance directives
spirituality

66

contrasting values affecting social policy (indiv vs gov't)

1. welfare is a person's responsibility within a free-market economy unfettered by govt
2. welfare is matter of common stake and responsibility of both individual and community (govt)

67

contributory policies

social security and medicare
older adults entitled to these benefits based on mandatory contributions into system as paid worker throughout their lives

68

discretionary policies

TANF low income children families -- congress has to approve funding annually and amt varies from year to year

69

social adequacy

shared societal obligation to provide a basic standard of living for all who are eligible, regardless of the size of their payroll contributions

70

individaul equity

when people receive benefits such as Social Security based on their earned right--what they paid as payroll taxes