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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (174):
1

Bacteria

- Prokaryotic
- Unicellular
- Cell wall
- Asexual

2

What is the major component of Bacteria

Peptidoglycan

3

Archaea

- Prokaryotic
- Unicellular
- Cell wall
- Asexual

4

What is the major component of Archaea?

Pseudo-peptidoglycan

5

Fungi

- Eukaryotic
- Both unicellular and multicellular
- Cell wall
- Both Asexual and Sexual

6

What is the major component of Fungi?

Chitin

7

Some protists

- Eukaryotic
- Unicellular
- NO cell wall
- Both Asexual and Sexual
* Not found in extreme environments

8

Multicellular animal parasites

- Eukaryotic
- Multicellular
- NO cell wall
- Both Asexual and Sexual

9

Saccharomyes Cerevisiae

Fermentation (yeast, microorganisms)

10

Lactobacilli

Bifido bacteria

11

cyanobacteria

Photosynthetic bacteria

12

Probiotics

Combinations of bacteria and yeast

13

Ubiquitous

Bad bacteria - found everywhere
< 1% of bacteria

14

What is microbiology led to?

Prevention of food spoilage
- salt, sugar, refrigeration, vacuum seal, dehydration.
Vaccines

15

Virulent

Something that has the ability to cause disease

16

Avirulent

Inactivated form of a diseases

17

Toxin vs. Toxide

Toxide can no longer affect the immune system

18

Halo indicates

High salt concentration

19

Viroids

Nothing but RNA that causes disease

20

Satellites

Always associated with another

21

Prions

No nucleic acid, only infectious proteins

22

Prokaryotic means

True nucleus

23

Eukaryotic means

No nucleus

24

Binary fission

asexual reproduction

25

Extremophiles

used to describe archaea

26

Who was the 1st person to coin the word "cell"

Robert Hooke

27

Who invented the first microscope to see microorganisms?

Anthony Van

28

Spontaneous generation

Life from not life theory
- abiogenesis

29

Biogenesis

Living organisms exists from pre existing cells

30

Louis Pasteur

Trapped bacteria in S-shaped flask. Boiled to confirm none are left. This proved that bacteria is present in air and when it gained access to broth is when it changed colors.

31

When a new species is discovered who must approve it and where must it be published?

The international committee approves the name and it must be published in the International journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.

32

What are the 3 ways stains are stored?

- Lyophilized/freeze dried ( -54 to -72)
- Deep freezing (-80)
- Sometimes in liquid (-196)

33

Culture independent

Bacteria that is natural and does not have to be grown.

34

What is the function of Ribosomes?

Protein synthesis

35

What is the small subunit in prokaryotes?

16S

36

What a re the large subunits in prokaryotes?

23S

37

Microscopy

Technique used to look at small tiny things

38

Robert Koch

Identified cause of anthrax

39

Which microbiologist suggested we should be washing our hands?

Ignaz Semmelweis

40

Who is credited for the surgical technique?

Joseph Lister
- Put phenol on surgical wounds
- Work modeled after Pasteur and Semmelweiss

41

Who is credited for the smallpox vaccine?

Edward Jenner

42

Who discovered Penicillin?

Alexander Fleming

43

After the discovery of penicillin who purified and active ingredient to be used for medical purposes?

Howard Florey and Ernest Chain

44

What are 3 ways stains are stored?

Lyophillized (freeze dried) -54/-72
Deep freezing -80 C
Liquid N2 -196 C

45

Culture independent

Bacteria that is natural and does not have to be grown.

46

How would you classify a gene scheme

- Based on molecular biology
- Explore evolutionary relationships
- Similarities in gene sequence
- Not always necessary

47

What is Identification of bacterial species or (DNA fingerprinting) used to identify?

- Antibiotic resistant strains
-Disease causing strains
Compare strains from suspected outbreaks

48

Microscopy

Technique used to look at small tiny things

49

Higher the light on a microscope will result in

A smaller resolution

50

Lower the light on a microscope will result in

A larger resolution

51

Which microscope would be used to see living specimens, effective up to 1000 - 1500X and is relatively inexpensive?

Light Microscopy

52

What are the 3 types of Light Microscopy?

- Brighnield
- Phase Contrast
- Fluorescent

53

Which microscope do we use in lab?

Brighnield

54

What is the eye piece called?

Occular

55

What is the 4x objective called?

Scanning

56

What is the 10x objective called?

Low power

57

What is the 40x objective called?

High Power

58

What is the 100x objective called?

Oil Immersion

59

What is a biofil?

Community of microcells

60

Which form of Ribosomes do prokaryotes have?

70S

61

Which form of Ribosomes do Eukaryotes have?

80S

62

Which bacteria has both a Cytoplasmic/cell membrane and a membrane bound nucleolus?

Eukaryotes

63

Which bacteria has a Cytoplasmic/cell membrane but not a membrane bound nucleolus

Prokaryotes

64

Murein

The major component of a cell wall in bacteria

65

Which bacteria has an internal membrane-bound organelles?

Eukarotes

66

Which bacteria has flagella?

Prokaryotes

67

Which bacteria's cell wall is made of peptidoglycan

Prokaryotes

68

Which cell wall is peptidoglycan and one membrane?

Gram Positive

69

Which cell was is peptidoglycan and have 2 membranes?

Gram Negative

70

What is peptidoglycan?

A polymer of 2 sugars

71

What is the Nag sugar in Peptidoglycan?

N-acetyl glucosamine

72

What is the Nam sugar is Peptidoglycan?

Muramle acid

73

What are the Nag-Nam sugars connected by?

A peptide chain of amino acids. they always connect between 2 Nam sugars.

74

What do Lysozymes do inside peptidoglycan?

The brain them down as a defense mechanism that targets bad bacteria

75

What is the thickness of a Gram-Positive cell wall?

40-80 nm thick

76

What type of acids are present in the Gram-Positive cell wall?

Teichoic and Lipoteichoic acids

77

What type of charge does to Teiochoic acid present in the Gram-Positive cell wall have?

A negative charge

78

What is the function of Lipteichoic acid?

To connect the cell membrane to the peptidoglycan

79

What is the thickness of a Gram-Negative Cell wall?

apx - 20nm

80

Where are Lipopolysaccharides found in a Gram-Negative cell wall?

The outer membrane

81

What is the function of the Lipopolysaccharides in a Gram-Negative cell wall?

Link for peptidoglycan and outer membrane

82

What is the function of LPS

Entry and Exit

83

What is LPS composed of?

- Lipid A (closes the peptidoglycan)
- Core Polysaccharides
- O-antigen /side chain

84

Who developed Gram staining?

Hans ChrisHan Gram

85

If the pg layer is thick and purple which stain is it?

Gram-positive

86

If the pg is thin and pink which stain is it?

Gram-negative

87

Mycoplasma spp.

No cell wall

88

What are the 3 internal structures of a cell?

Cytoplasm, Nucleoid and Endospores

89

Which structure inside the cell is composed of protein and 80% liquid and 20% lipids and carbohydrates

Cytoplasm

90

What is the site of protein synthesis?

Ribosomes

91

What is the benefit of having the Ribosomes in close proximity to the cytoplasm?

Being it is about to actively create more enzymes and transmit them to the cell wall faster.

92

What are inclusion bodies (reserve deposits) in the cytoplasm?

-Storage for metabolic byproducts or nutrients
-Contain polyphosphate, glycogen, sulfur, starch
-Magnetosomes (iron)
-Carboxysomes (in some bugs that fix CO2)

93

How are nutrients transported across the outer membrane in Gram negative bacteria?

-Porins

94

What are Porins made of and how many are there?

Trimeric proteins and there are 3 proteins involved.

95

What process is involved in Simple and Facilitated diffusion?

Passive process

96

What type of process is involved in Active transport and Group translocation?

Active process

97

What is the function of simple, facilitated active and group diffusion?

Transport molecules into the cell

98

What is the function of secretion?

Transport molecules to the outside

99

Simple Diffusion

- Molecules go from outside to inside the cell or from high to low concentration and requires. No energy to do so.
- Simple diffusion only contains Oxygen and Water

100

Facilitated Diffusion

- Similar to simple diffusion
- ** Requires a carrier protein - transporter
- Seen mostly in Eukaryotic cells

101

Specific Proteins

Will only work for certain amino acids
- E.x : Glucose

102

Nonspecific Transporter

Carrier proteins for different kinds
- Facilitated diffusion is about to go through a nonspecific transporter

103

Active Transport

Works against a concentration gradient
* Requires energy
- Proteins go from outside to inside the cell and then through ATP hydrolysis

104

Group Translocation

Similar to active transport
- Incoming molecules are chemically modified
-* Molecules go from outside to inside and then through PEP and then to 3 other proteins before combining.

105

What does PEP stand for?

Phosphoenolpyruvate

106

What is a phosphorelay?

Transport from one protein to another

107

What is the benefit of chemical modification in Group Translocation?

- Having the phosphate helps
- Makes it difficult to escape to outside

108

Bacteria growth

Bacteria are unicellular so when said to be getting bigger they are growing in population not in size.

109

Growth requirements for bacteria in a lab?

Nutrients, water, temperature, PH and appropriate ATM

110

Barophilic/Tolerant would include microbes that

Live in the deep sea and have a high ATM
-Contain a short chain of fatty acids

111

What is a challenge in the laboratory while creating bacteria?

Maintaining Hydrostatic pressure and light correctly because they differ.

112

Which molecules make up macronutrients?

Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates and Nucleic acids.

113

Which element are contained in the most of the macronutrients?

C, H, O, N, S, P

- K, Fe, Ca, Mg are required

114

Which elements are involved in macronutrient proteins?

C, H, O, N, S

115

Which elements are involved in macronutrient Lipids?

C, H, O, P

116

Which elements are involved in macronutrient carbohydrates?

C, H, O

117

Which elements are involved in macronutrient nucleic acids?

C, H, O, N, P

118

How are micronutrients used? Mn,Zn,Cu

- They serve as cofactors for many enzymes
- Needed in very small amounts

119

What is the symbol for water availability or activity?

Aw

120

What Aw do most organisms grow at?

>0.98

121

What tolerates salt on our skin?

S. aureus

- Tries maintains high levels of nutrients.

122

Isotonic

Cell maintains equilibrium

123

Hypertonic

- High in solute on outside of environment.
- Water moves from inside to outside

124

In relation to a hypertonic cell what does plasmolysis mean?

- The action of solute moving from inside the cell to outside of it. Metabolically inactive but not dead.

125

Hypotonic

Solute goes from outside the cell to inside the cell

126

In relation to a hypotonic cell what is Lysis?

When the cell swells in size and than bust open

127

Psychrophiles temperature

<15 degrees C
- Cold loving (antifreeze component)
- Unsaturated

128

Mesophiles temperature

20 - 45 degrees C
- Moderate temperature (Humans)

129

Thermophiles temperature

>45 degrees C
- Heat loving (desert)
- Saturated

130

Cardinal Temperature

Varying range in temperature between organisms

- 30 Degrees apart between minimum and maximum.

131

Obligate Aerobes

- Show growth only when O2 is high.

- Catalyse and SOD

132

Facultative Anaerobes

- Can grow no matter amount of oxygen but prefer high volume.

- Catalyse and SOD

133

Obligate Anaerobes

Can NOT grow in Oxygen

134

Aerotolerant Anaerobes

- Have no preference wither oxygen is there or not


- Only SOD

135

Microaerophiles

Grow only in Low O2 concentration


- +/- caralyse & SOD

136

What is SOD?

Superoxide Dismutase

137

How long would DNA be if it was stretched out and how does it all fit inside a nucleoid?

DNA would be 1 mm long and is Highly supercoiled

138

Sometimes additional DNA is present in a chromosome. What is it called and how big is it?

- Extrachromosomal DNA
- 1/1000 Size of chromosome

139

Endospore

These are present during the resting stage of a cell and NOT a reproductive structure.

- They are formed in response to adverse conditions

- Also the most resistant biological structure known (extreme environments have no effect)

140

Sporulation

When a cell produces an endospore

141

Where do Endospores form?

Inside the Parent or Vegetative cell

142

What are characteristics of an Endospore?

- Have a thick cell wall (several layers)
- High levels of Ca
- No water/ very low
- No measurable metabolism

143

What is the purpose of an endospore?

An endospore is created when conditions are unfavorable. Endospores pack away DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes to remake proteins later. Once there is enough nutrients the endospore returns back to a vegetative state. After this new cells are not created they just stabilize due to high levels of calcium.

144

Germination

Endospore ---> Cell

- When an endospore returns back to a vegetative cell after enough nutrients is obtained.

145

Sporulation

Cell ----> Endospore

When a cell is not in favorable conditions and creates an endospore

146

How long are Endospores known to survive and which bacteria are they formed by?

Over 100,000 years (causing biological warfare concerns)

- Formed by Gram - Positive Bacteria
- Bacillus and Clostridium

147

Bacillus anthracis

Anthrax

Medical important spore former

148

B. thuringiensis

Insect pathogen sold as insecticide

Medical important spore former

149

Clostridium tetani

Tetanus

Medical important spore former

150

C. botulinum

Botolism

Medical important spore former

151

External to cell wall

- Capsule
- S- layer
- Pili (s.pilus)
- Flagella

152

The capsule is also called

Glucocalyx or slime

153

What is the function of a capsule

- Adhesion and Protection

154

Phagocytosis

Eating another cell and able to escape the process

155

Function of the external structure S- layer

Protection

- Only on certain bacteria. Simply another wall bad bacteria would have to pass though

156

The S-layer of a external cell structure may contain glycoproteins, what are these?

Adhesions, self-assembling protein

S-layer can be used as a drugs delivery system

157

Pili or fimbriae is another external structure what is its role?

-Adhesion
-Conjugation (sex pili)
-Twitching motility

158

Conjugation

*Bacterial sex - when genetic material is exchanged

159

Where is Flagella attached to?

The cell envelope by basal body embedded in the cell envelope

160

Monotrichous Flagellar arrangements

1 flagella

161

Amphitrichous Flagellar arrangements

2 projection tails

162

Peritrichous flagellar arrangements

All over the cell

163

Lophotrichous flagellar arrangements

Multiple at one end

164

Tuft

Grouping of flagella at 1 end

165

Chemotaxis

Movement in response to a stimulant

166

Positive chemotaxis

Aerobic

- Moving toward an arrangement (food nutrients)

167

Negative chemotaxis

Anaerobic
- Away from a repellant (toxin or antibiotic)

168

Flagella helps cells travel. In which direction do they turn?

Counter Clockwise

169

How far can cells travel with flagella

They can cover a distance of 100x bigger than its size in one second

170

Cell membranes composed of phospholipids

- Polar head
- Non-polar fatty acid tail

- Assembled into bilayers

171

Amphipathic

Polar and non-polar things

172

Do saturated fatty acids enable growth at higher or lower temperatures?

Higher

173

Charged regions of the Cell membrane are on the

Outside of the cell

174

What the the function of proteins

- Function as enzymes
- Support - forming a scaffold
- Environmental sensing
- Transport across membranes