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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (25)
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1

What makes a prokaryotic cell different from a eukaryotic cell?

No nucleus
No membrane-bound organelles

2

What does a plasmid contain?

Virulence factors
Resistance genes

3

What is the process called when bacteria transfer plasmids from one cell to another?

Conjugation

4

What does a gram-negative bacteria have?

Outer membrane
Thin layer of peptidoglycan
Lipopolysaccharides in outer membrane

5

What does a gram-positive bacteria have?

Thick layer of peptidoglycan
Teichoic acids attached to peptidoglycan

6

What color does gram-negative bacteria stain?

Pink

7

What color does gram-positive bacteria stain?

Purple

8

What enzymes link the components of a bacterial cell wall?

Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs)

9

What are the roles of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria?

Selective permeability
Resistance to toxic compounds (antibiotics)

10

What are the roles of pili/fimbriae?

Adherence to surfaces
Bacterial interaction

11

What are the roles of a capsule in a bacterial cell?

Helps evade immune system
Attachment to surfaces
Increases tolerance to antimicrobials

12

What is a capsule (bacterial cells) made of?

Polysaccharides

13

What is an endospore?

Dormant bacteria that can survive in harsh conditions for long periods of time
Can become active again if they enter a host

14

What is commensalism symbiosis?

Relation is good for one, no problem for the other

15

What is the difference between balanced and unbalanced pathogenicity?

Balanced- damage w/ recovery
Unbalanced- high damage or death

16

What is the definition of infection?

Invasion and multiplication of a microorganism eventually leading to disease

17

What is a subacute infection?

Between acute & chronic

18

What kind of bacteria are flagella usually found in?

Gram-negative bacteria

19

What is an anatoxin?

A chemically treated toxin that is antigenic

20

What does a type 1 exotoxin affect?

Cell metabolism via receptor binding

21

What does a type 2 exotoxin affect?

Damages cell wall

22

What does a type 3 exotoxin affect?

Part goes intracellular, part binds to the membrane

23

What are effects of endotoxins?

Fever
Sickness
Tissue damage
Cardiovascular Shock
Death

24

What are 2 examples of an endotoxin?

LPS
Lipid A

25

What are the 3 types of bacterial secretion systems?

Membrane Vesicles
Porins
Injection Systems (needle-like)