Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (25)
What makes a prokaryotic cell different from a eukaryotic cell?
No membrane-bound organelles
What does a plasmid contain?
What is the process called when bacteria transfer plasmids from one cell to another?
What does a gram-negative bacteria have?
Thin layer of peptidoglycan
Lipopolysaccharides in outer membrane
What does a gram-positive bacteria have?
Thick layer of peptidoglycan
Teichoic acids attached to peptidoglycan
What color does gram-negative bacteria stain?
What color does gram-positive bacteria stain?
What enzymes link the components of a bacterial cell wall?
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs)
What are the roles of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria?
Resistance to toxic compounds (antibiotics)
What are the roles of pili/fimbriae?
Adherence to surfaces
What are the roles of a capsule in a bacterial cell?
Helps evade immune system
Attachment to surfaces
Increases tolerance to antimicrobials
What is a capsule (bacterial cells) made of?
What is an endospore?
Dormant bacteria that can survive in harsh conditions for long periods of time
Can become active again if they enter a host
What is commensalism symbiosis?
Relation is good for one, no problem for the other
What is the difference between balanced and unbalanced pathogenicity?
Balanced- damage w/ recovery
Unbalanced- high damage or death
What is the definition of infection?
Invasion and multiplication of a microorganism eventually leading to disease
What is a subacute infection?
Between acute & chronic
What kind of bacteria are flagella usually found in?
What is an anatoxin?
A chemically treated toxin that is antigenic
What does a type 1 exotoxin affect?
Cell metabolism via receptor binding
What does a type 2 exotoxin affect?
Damages cell wall
What does a type 3 exotoxin affect?
Part goes intracellular, part binds to the membrane
What are effects of endotoxins?
What are 2 examples of an endotoxin?