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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (22):
1

4 macromolecules

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids

2

Lysosomes

Contain an array of enzymes capable of breaking down all types of biological polymers (proteins, carbohydrates, etc)

3

Chloroplast

A plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place (plant cells only)

4

Central Vacuole

Largest organelle in plant cells only, holds materials and wastes, also helps to maintain proper pressure for the cell

5

Cell Wall

A rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria

6

Cilia

Slender protuberances that project from the cell body, only found in eukaryotic cells

7

Flagella

A slender threadlike structure that allow bacteria like cells to swim

8

Cytoskeleton

Give the cell its shape and offers support during movement, in plant and animal cells

9

Nucleus and nuclear envelope

Contains majority of the cells genetic material

10

Plasma membrane

Forms the external boundary of the cytoplasm and keeps track of objects moving in and out of the cell

11

Endoplasmic reticulum

Involved in protein and lipid synthesis (smooth and rough)

12

Ribosome

Protein builders by connecting amino acids

13

Golgi Apparatus

Receives proteins and lipids from the rough ER. It modifies some of them and sorts them and packs them into vesicles

14

Vesicle

Consists of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer

15

Mitochondria

Power house of the cell, converting oxygen and nutrients into ATP

16

Passive Transport

Diffusion
Osmosis
Facilitated
*doesnt require energy to perform

17

Active Transport

Requires energy to perform

18

Saturated vs Unsaturated Fats

Saturated have all single C-H bonds

Unsaturated have double C-H bonds

19

Aerobic pathway

Glycolysis
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport Chain

20

Glycolysis

In cytosol
Glucose changed to pyruvate
ATP is a byproduct

21

Krebs Cycle

In mito
Forms CO2
Releases ATP

22

Electron Transport Chain

In mito
Transfers electrons from donors to acceptors
Creates a protein gradient that drives the synthesis of ATP