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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (192):
1

Preschool Period

2–5 (some prefer to describe as toddlers children who have begun to walk and are age 1–3)

2

adolescent brain

Science had thought that most of the brain’s growth occurred in utero and the first three years of life. Research has shown that the_____________ ___________ goes through another incredible period of brain growth, forming new pathways and pruning away pathways that are not well used. The brain development is uneven and seems to occur in an unfortunate direction. Brain regions located further back, the regions associated with processing emotions, and memories, and the reward center appear to mature earlier than the pre-frontal cortex region which is the logical, reasoning, regulating part of the brain. Psychologist David Walsh writes, “It is as if a teenager's brain has a fully functional car accelerator but the brakes have not been installed yet”.

3

Lev Vygotsky

Another cognitive development theory was presented by ________ _________.

4

Exosystem

______________ - not directly experienced by the child but influencing the living environment. For example the parents’ work or friends, neighborhood

5

ego integrity vs despair

Erikson’s final stage of life,____ __________ vs__________, focused on whether the individual accepts their life for what it was and experiences a sense of fulfillment or sees the actions and relationships of life as meaningless or less than hoped for.

6

Programmed Theories

____________ ___________: there is a maximum life span – a limit on the number of years that each species can live, this is a species specific genetic program. Mayflies live for 24 hours. The Bowhead whale can live for 200 years. Human life maximum life span is estimated at 125 years. The average human life span is 78 years in the U.S. today but it varies by genetic makeup, sex, culture, socioeconomic status, level of exercise, stress, obesity.

7

Trust vs Mistrust

First year: are basic needs met

8

Chronosystem

__________________ - the pattern of events over time so it is not just a snapshot of life, but a chain of events over the life span.

9

Physical

The body and brain are part of _____________ Development.

10

positive correlation

is seen when both factors increase or decrease together.

11

Accidents

___________ such as drownings and motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in childhood, followed by cancer, and third, gunshot wounds. And more than 9.2 million individuals under 18 years old are treated in emergency rooms each year for nonfatal injuries (cdc.gov)

12

Damage or Error Theories

____________ or _________ _________: This theory proposes that wear and tear, a buildup of damage to cells and organs over the years results in death. Cells are reproducing throughout our life but later in life errors in replication, or damage leads to diseases and biological aging.

13

nature – nurture debate

The ___________-__________ _________ no longer seems to be an either or, now the discussion focuses more on how nature and nurture link in development.

14

hypothesis

A _____________ is a prediction, an explanation of what we see.

15

life span development

________ _______ ___________ is studied by many disciplines including historians, economists, anthropologists and sociologists.

16

Latent period

During the _________ __________, the libido is quiet.

17

Debriefing

aspects of the experiment are discussed afterwards as needed

18

positive reinforcement

Parenting research indicates it is best to use ______________ ______________.

19

id

The ____ is impulsive, irrational, selfish and seeks immediate gratification. At birth, it is the only thing

20

Prenatal period

Conception to birth

21

Sequential Designs

which combine both, taking a cross section of cohorts and assessing throughout a period of time.

22

sleeping habits, sleep phase delay

Poor___________ _________ may be in part due to homework requirements, work schedules, social media, but teens also are responding to a biological natural shift called _________ _________ _________. The body moves toward going to sleep about two hours later. Researchers have suggested altering the time so that high school begins later in the morning. This would accommodate to the adolescent change in circadian rhythms. Not getting enough sleep is associated with decreased motivation and difficulty concentrating, lack of frustration tolerance and depression.

23

synaptogenesis

________________ - development of synapses, the connections within the brain.

24

Emerging adulthood

18–25 or even 29 (transitional period between adolescence and adulthood)

25

take better care of our brain

In addition, research is suggesting that we can______ ________ ______ of ______ ______ as we take better care of our bodies and this can influence mental as well as physical aging.

26

Integrity vs Despair

65/older: life was meaningful or not

27

Zone of Proximal Development

__________ of __________ ____________ - the area of difference between what a learner can do without help and what the learner can do with help. Teaching in this zone was the most effective means of encouraging learning and development.

28

Bronfenbrenner

________________ applied systems theory to child development. It is represented in a series of rings of influence around the child/individual. From inner ring to outer ring:

29

ego

The second component develops during infancy. The _____ is the rational force that tries to effectively find ways of meeting the id’s needs.

30

Case Study

an in-depth examination of an individual or unit (i.e. family)

31

Cognitive

language, learning, memory, problem solving and other mental processes are part of ____________ development.

32

Universality-context specific:

Is development universal, common to all
humans, or highly influenced by the milieu/culture the child grows up in?

33

Erik Erikson

______ _______ in the Psychosocial Theory expanded to include the life span

34

way beyond

One of the most interesting findings with research on infants is that infants have capabilities________ ________ what was first believed.

35

Negative punishment

something desirable is removed following a bad behavior.

36

Developmentalists

___________________ look to describe, predict, explain and optimize development.

37

reinforcer

a __________ increases a behavior

38

The four major theories:

1. Psychoanalytic Theory of Freud, Erikson
2. Learning Theory of Pavlov, Skinner,Bandura
3. Cognitive Developmental Theory of Piaget
4. Ecological Systems Theory of Bronfenbrenner

39

menstrual cycle

A woman experiences a specific pattern in a____________ _________ of about a four-week span. During this month, levels of estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone rise and fall in a specific pattern.

40

Bobo doll experiment

Bobo doll

___________ __________ _____________ in which children imitated how an adult model interacted with a _________ __________. If the model was rewarded the children were more likely to imitate the behavior. If the model was punished they were less likely to imitate the behavior. Bandura called this vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment as it was secondhand, not directly delivered to the children.

41

life-span developmental model of health

A_____-________ __________ ___________ of ____________ understands that health is determined as noted above by both genetic and environmental influences. In addition, it is influenced by social and historical factors, and personal choices. It looks at health from a multidimensional perspective and recognizes that changes in health involve both gains and losses over the life span.

42

Evocative

_____________ - child’s genotype (genetic identity) and phenotype (actual physical characteristics) provoke responses from people in the child’s environment

43

scientific method

In the ____________ ___________ we observe a situation of interest and we develop a hypothesis-we then test our hypothesis through research and develop a theory-This may mean accepting or rejecting the hypothesis and may require many observations/experiments to reach a conclusion that is supported by data.

44

age groups

Piaget proposed_______ ________ but research has found that abilities occur much earlier in infants and young children, and that different abilities may proceed at different rates and therefore the lines between stages may be more fluid.

45

Correlation

Observe the strength of relationship between different factors. Does not show cause and effect.

46

puberty

A major health change in adolescence is____________

47

Sociocultural Theory

Vygotsky’s ______________ _____________ stressed the idea of the Zone of Proximal Development

48

truthfully and fully

Report information __________ ______ ________ even if not the results that had been expected or hoped for.

49

minds and bodies

How we care for our ____________ and _____________ as we develop is important as success in aging is greatly based in our lives as children, adolescents, and adults.

50

theory

an explanation of a certain situation or occurrence

51

Physiological Measurement

investigating biological systems, such as the cell, organs, anatomy, and the whole organism utilizing tests such as blood pressure, hormone level, brain blood flow in an fMRI

52

rite of passage

a ritual that marks a person’s “passage” from one status to another, usually in reference to the transition from childhood to adulthood.

53

Genetically informed research

______________ ____________ _____________ -tries to determine whether there are genetic explanations for apparent environmental effects.

54

Development

systematic changes and continuities in the individual that occur between conception and death, or from “womb to tomb.”

55

Oral stage
Anal stage
Phallic stage
Latent period
Genital stage

The five psychosexual stages of development are:

56

not a normal part of aging.

Diseases such as dementia which cause serious brain damage are________ a _________ part of ___________.

57

95%

the majority of research samples in studies published in American psychology journals were Americans yet _____ % of the world’s population is not American.

58

Cognitive development

Changes and continuities in perception, language, learning, memory, problem solving, and other mental processes.

59

creative and cognitive functioning.

Research suggests that there is greater coordination between the hemispheres in the adult brain allowing for increased______________ and ___________ _____________.

60

Initiative vs Guilt

3-6 yrs: carry out own plans or not

61

Health changes

___________ ___________as we age include changes in physical appearance such as wrinkles, looser skin, hair thinning or greying. Acute illnesses such as colds and infections become less frequent than in childhood but sensory loss and chronic diseases and disorders become more common.

62

Middle adulthood

40–65 years

63

lateralization

One important feature developed in the child’s brain is_____________ – neurological functions become focused in one hemisphere or the other. In most people, the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and specializes in the analytical, logical processes. And the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body and specializes in the more intuitive, creative processes.

64

punishment

A ____________ decreases a behavior.

65

corpus callosum

Messages are sent through the __________ __________ - a broad band of nerve fibers that join the two hemispheres.

66

id, ego, superego

Freud’s theory included these three components of personality. Freud felt conflict between the three components was inevitable.

67

Autonomy vs Shame

1-3 yrs: do for oneself or self doubt

68

Naturalistic Observation

observing our sample in natural surroundings

69

Microsystem

________________ - the biology of the child and the immediate physical/social environment, usually the family.

70

Mesosystem

_______________ - other microsystems that impact the child i.e. day care, school, peers

71

growth

the physical changes that occur from conception to maturity

72

Reinforcement and punishment

____________ and ____________ can both be delivered in positive (add something), or negative, (withdraw something), ways.

73

Late adulthood

65 years and older (some break out subcategories such as the young-old, old-old, and very old based on differences in functioning)

74

Ecological or Bioecological Systems Theory

_______________ or _____________ ____________ ____________ -was developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner. Systems theory, or systems science, is the interdisciplinary study of systems. It has a focus on the interactions and interdependence of the parts of a system. Change in one part of the system affects other parts and also affects the system as a whole.

75

physical and mental exercise

the adult brain benefits from_____________ and ____________ _____________.

76

reinforcement

If Operant Conditioning increases a behavior it is called a _____________.

77

Protection from harm

researchers are bound to not physically or psychologically harm the participant

78

Psychosocial development

Changes and carryover in personal and interpersonal aspects of development, such as motives, emotions, personality traits, interpersonal skills and relationships, and roles played in the family and in the larger society.

79

Passive, Evocative, Active

Gene-Environment Correlations are noted: ___________ __________ ___________

80

Cross-Sectional Design

in which the sample is composed of different cohorts

81

physical health

As with children, adolescents are not reaching their optimal level of__________ _________.

82

vaccines

Newborn babies are born immune to many diseases as they carry the antibodies of their mothers. This immunity goes away, however, so___________ are necessary to prevent illnesses that a child could die from, and help keep others safe as well.

83

average human life span

The________ ________ ______ _____ is 78 years in the U.S. today but it varies by genetic makeup, sex, culture, socioeconomic status, level of exercise, stress, obesity.

84

Biological aging

the deterioration of organisms (including humans) that leads inevitably to their death

85

testosterone

The male sex hormone,_______________ level varies from individual to individual and apparently is influence by time of day and time of the year (peak levels in the morning and in spring). Men do not experience the sharp drop in hormones noted with women but for each year over age 30, the level of_______________ in men starts to slowly dip at a rate of around 1 percent per year. Both men and women can experience a decrease in________________ level and it may result in changes in energy level, sex drive, strength.

86

Formal Operations

____________ ____________ - abstract thought and hypothetical possibilities as explore the world

87

sample

A _________ is the group that is studied.

88

Generativity vs Stagnation

40-65 yrs: contributing or lack of purpose

89

neurogenesis

Aging had been looked at as a time of decline and loss. Today we recognize_______________, the ability to form new brain cells and neural pathways, continues into adulthood.

90

Social Cognitive Theory

Social Learning Theory

______________ ____________ _____________(also known as______________ ____________ ___________) developed by Albert Bandura stressed the active thinking process that he saw as an essential aspect of human learning and development. He suggested that humans learn very differently than do other species. He agrees that we can learn from behavioral techniques noted above but notes as humans we also think about our own behavior and consequences and adjust our actions. We reward and punish ourselves with not only things but also mentally, with positive and negative self-talk.

91

emerging adulthood

a transitional period between adolescence and full-fledged adulthood that extends from about age 18 to age 25 and maybe as late as 29.

92

Confidentiality

information is protected, shared only as permission was granted or as required by law.

93

development

One reason we study ____________ is to see how nature and nurture encourage or impede _____________.

94

Microsystem
Mesosystem
Exosystem
Macrosystem
Chronosystem

systems theory to child development. It is represented in a series of rings of influence around the child/individual. That series from inner ring to outer ring is as follows:

95

Intimacy vs Isolation

20-40 yrs: close relationship or loneliness

96

Macrosystem

__________________ - impact of the larger culture, societal values, historical influences

97

physical punishment

If_____________ ____________ is used it should not be overly harsh but be mild and administered immediately after the act so it is properly paired with the offense, consistently to the offense, accompanied by an explanation, and used sparingly along with positive reinforcement.

98

Oral stage

The _______ ________ has its focus on the mouth as a source of pleasure, obtaining gratification from the mother.

99

Passive

___________ - the environment provided by parents reflects the genes of both the parents and the child

100

Accidents, Nutrition & Physical Activity

In exploring the health of a child, we often look at: ______________ _______________ & __________ __________

101

Bell

Pavlov later ran an experiment showing they would salivate to a ______ if initially paired with meat.

102

Assimilates

As a child ____________, it takes in new information from experience.

103

synaptic pruning

__________ ___________ - removal of connections deemed unnecessary

104

age grade

Each socially defined age group in a society—is assigned different statuses, roles, privileges, and responsibilities.

105

menopause

At_________________, (usually occurs between 45 and 55 years but can be as early as 30s and late as 60s) a woman no longer ovulates, or menstruates and is no longer able to conceive a child. There tends to be negative stereotypes about menstrual cycles and_________________, but severe reactions are rare.

106

Cognitive Developmental Theory

______________ _____________ ____________ was developed by Jean Piaget. He had, throughout his life, been interested in zoology, biology, and philosophy and wondered how humans acquired knowledge.

107

Psychoanalytic Theory

_______________ __________ was developed by Sigmund Freud. He focused on the basic inborn, biological urges and drives, the instincts of the human being. His theory revolves around unconscious motivation. But he also saw the early environment, how the parents interacted with the child during the first five years of life, as fundamental in development.

108

experiences

We have discussed how nature and nurture interact. The genetic makeup may actually influence the kinds of____________ an individual will have.

109

superego

The ___________ develops from the ego as the three to six-year-old child internalizes the moral standards of the parents

110

Positive reinforcement

____________ __________ is something good that occurs after a behavior.

111

Eric Erikson

______ _______ was a developmental psychologist, rather than a neurologist like Freud. He believed there were stages of development in which specific “crisis” or “conflicts” needed to be resolved or it would impact the ability of the individual to resolve the next stage. But he saw the stages less as biological and unconscious and more as social, interactive and rational. He proposed eight stages of development.

112

human lifespan

Societies tend to divide the ________ _________ into periods and age grades

113

plasticity

Recent research has also found a greater degree of______________ than was once thought. This allows the brain to compensate for loss of ability in one area of the brain with pathways in another part of the brain.

114

Anal stage

focus on the anus, toilet training, conflict between biological urges and societal expectations. Development of the ego.

115

physical fitness, poor eating and sleeping patterns

Lack of________ ________ , ________ ___________ and ____________ ____________ are issues of concern with this age group. The CDC found that more than half of U.S. teens age 12-15 are physically unfit. Teens rarely get the necessary exercise per day, more than 1/3 of teens are overweight or obese and many show health risks of high blood pressure, high cholesterol and high blood sugar. And research findings actually show that poor physical health can negatively impact cognitive ability.

116

Physical development

The growth of the body and its organs, the functioning of physiological systems including the brain, physical signs of aging, changes in motor abilities, and so on.

117

Active

___________ - the genotype influences the kinds of environment the individual seeks.

118

maximum life span

there is a_______ _______ _______ – a limit on the number of years that each species can live, this is a species specific genetic program. Mayflies live for 24 hours. The Bowhead whale can live for 200 years. Human life______ _______ _______ is estimated at 125 years.

119

Nutrition

Regarding ___________: 1 in 3 children in the U.S. is obese. This number has tripled since 1970. Obesity in childhood can lead to high blood pressure, asthma and sleep apnea, joint and musculoskeletal problems, heartburn, gallstones, low self-esteem, bullying, and is related to anxiety and depression. More likely to grow up to be adults with obesity and face a greater risk of heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. And it disproportionally affects children from low- income families.

120

successful aging

So far aging is inevitable. Today the discussion of aging is often centered on____________ _________, aging with a focus on quality of life not just the number of years one lives.____________ _________ may mean being free of illness that limits activity, or maintaining good family or friend relationships, or being resilient in the face of hardship.

121

fixated or stuck

If a child does not develop smoothly through a stage, they will become _________ or _______ . Consequently they will exhibit behavioral symptoms of that stage throughout the life span.

122

PPCT model

Process (everyday life), Person (individual differences), Context (setting), and Time (longitudinal). Or the ________ __________.

123

sleeping, REM sleep (rapid eye movement)

Infants spend more time___________ and more time in_________ __________ (_____ ______ ______) than other periods of life. This is thought to play an important role in consolidating learning.

124

Ivan Pavlov

Learning theory was based on the work of physiologist ______ _______ who discovered Classical Conditioning.

125

Vygotsky

____________ believed that active socio-cultural interaction resulted in development. He suggested that experience could lead to development rather than development leading to learning as suggested by Piaget.

126

Preoperational

________________ - develops language, pretend play but egocentric and not yet logical

127

cohorts

groups of individuals born at the same time

128

aging

as developmental scientists define it, involves more than biological _________; it refers to a range of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes, positive and negative, in the mature organism. In short, development involves gains, losses, neutral changes, and continuities in each phase of the life span, and__________ is part of it.

129

Infants, infancy

________ are born with reflexes, survival reflexes such as breathing and sucking that will be permanent and other reflexes referred to as primitive reflexes, that we do not completely understand, such as swimming and stepping that will disappear in early_________.

130

Gradual and mild degeneration

____________ and __________ ____________of the nervous system does occur in normal aging, but much of this occurs in the sensory motor areas of the brain rather than in the prefrontal cortex.

131

Western ethnocentric attitude

- a belief in the superiority of white middle class

- may influence research design, procedures and measures leading to seeing minorities and other cultures as deficient.

132

nature – nurture debate

The _______-________ ________ addresses causality in development.

133

negative correlation

as one factor increases the other factor decreases.

134

PPCT model

Bronfenbrenner thought to research and understand development researchers needed to use a__________ __________.

135

Meta-analysis

draws conclusions by synthesizing information from many many studies.

136

Phallic stage

focus on the genitals, desire for opposite sex parent. Development of the superego.

137

plasticity

An advantage noted in childhood is increased brain___________ – the ability of the brain to reorganize itself and form new pathways if there is damage to a part of the brain.

138

Psychosocial

emotions, traits, interpersonal skills and relationships are parts of _______________ development.

139

Classical Conditioning

__________ __________ is a simple form of learning in which a stimulus that has no effect can elicit a response from a subject after being paired with a stimulus that already had an effect on the subject.

140

Genital stage

The ________ _________ occurs with puberty, a time of sexual instincts when the individual seeks a mature relationship with the goal of reproduction.

141

rite of passage

a ritual that marks a person’s passage from one stage to another.

142

Middle childhood

6 to about 10 (or until the onset of puberty)


143

Human Development

the systematic changes that occur over a life span.

144

Survey data collection

using verbal or written questionnaires on our sample

145

negative reinforcement

A _________ __________ is not a punishment as it increases the behavior

146

Learning Theory

__________ __________ emphasized nurture over nature. How children turn out is not due to inborn tendencies but rather entirely on the environment in which they grow up. In contrast to the unobservable in psychoanalytic theory, based their conclusions on observation in experiments.

147

Early adulthood

25–40 years (adult roles are established)

148

critical or sensitive periods

_____________ or ____________ ____________ -times in which growth will proceed most easily and rapidly. If opportunities to develop these skills are absent during these critical or sensitive periods then later development may not occur or will occur at a much lower level. The better we understand infant ability and brain growth the better we can support development.

149

theory

a well substantiated, verified explanation.

150

Evidence-based

_________-_________ means the action is grounded in research and demonstrated to be effective.

151

Exercise

_______________can improve cardiovascular and respiratory functioning, slow bone loss, and strengthen muscle. And exercise also appears to have a positive effect on cognitive ability as we age.

152

Life span development

________ ________ ____________ covers prenatal development through dying and death and all the in-betweens

153

puberty

____________is a biological process resulting in sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce. This process is triggered by hormones that stimulate physical growth and secondary sex characteristics. These include in females enlarged breasts and menstruation and in males, facial hair growth, Adam’s apple and spermarche or semenarch (first ejaculation of viable sperm).

154

safe and necessary.

One poorly done study suggested that immunizations could cause cognitive issues later on and this one study has been used over and over again to resist vaccinating children. All other research suggests vaccines are__________ and ____________.

155

1. Physical (body and brain)

2. Cognitive (language, learning, memory, problem solving and other mental processes)

3. Psychosocial (emotions, traits, interpersonal skills and relationships)

Specifically, we will explore development in three main areas:

156

Constructivism

______________ - that we construct our own understanding of the world through active interaction, and experience. This active process required both a basis of biological wiring, and interaction with the world.

157

Age

______in and of itself is not the only factor, individual differences can be notable. There may be an active 70-year-old who is in better physical condition than a sedentary 40-year old.

158

Concrete Operations

___________ ___________ - logical, practical approach to understandding the real world

159

age grade

a socially defined age group in a society that comes with its own set of expectations, privileges and responsibilities

160

Experiment

manipulation of an independent variable to see the effect on a dependent variable

161

Schemas

____________ are their understanding of the world around them.

162

Observational Learning

Bandura highlighted_____________ _____________ - we learn by observing the behavior of other people. He saw this as an active process, we pay attention, and place our observations in memory to refer to later in guiding our behavior.

163

punishment

If Operant Conditioning decreases the behavior it is called a _______________.

164

Healthy diet, exercise, continued learning and social interaction

_________ ______ , _________ , __________ ____________ and __________ __________ all appear to be important in aging well.

165

Continuity, discontinuity

Does development proceed in small continuous changes (___________) or in a series of qualitatively different steps or stages (____________).

166

Epigenetic effects

As well genetically informed research looks at_________ _________, changes in gene expression that do not involve changes to the underlying DNA, but can be passed on to the next generation. An example of this is research showing that a mother’s exposure to pollution could impact her child’s asthma susceptibility. In other words, certain life circumstances can cause genes to be inactive or expressed over time.

167

theory

A _________ should be coherent (internally consistent), testable and supported by data.

168

Identify vs Role confusion

12-20 yrs: establish sense of who are

169

Negative reinforcement

____________ ___________ is when something unpleasant is taken away after the behavior.

170

Positive punishment

an unpleasant response occurs following a behavior

171

hormone level changes

Research suggest both men and women experience __________ _________ _________ during adulthood.

172

Sensorimotor

_________________ - use of senses and motor actions to explore and understand the world.

173

nature

Development determined by evolution, biological influences, a genetic code and chemicals in our body and brain

174

Culture

____________ is the shared understandings and way of life of a people. It includes beliefs, values, and practices concerning the nature of humans in different phases of the life span, what children need to be taught to function in their society, and how people should lead their lives as adults.

175

Active, passive

Are human beings actively participating in and influencing their own development (________) or are humans shaped by forces outside of their control (_________).

176

nature, nurture

The impact of the internal genetic make-up, and biological processes (________) and the impact of external influences (_________).

177

Infancy

First 2 years of life (the first month is the neonatal or newborn period)

178

B.F. Skinner

_______________ was another learning theorist, he proposed another manner of conditioning that he called Operant Conditioning.

179

Informed consent

the subject understands and voluntarily agrees to participate in the research

180

psychosexual stages of development

Freud proposed five _______________ ___________ of ____________ based in the biological sexual instinct he referred to as libido.

181

Industry vs Inferiority

6-12 yrs: master age skills or not

182

Adolescence

Approximately 10–18 (or from puberty to when the individual becomes relatively independent)

183

physical punishment

Research also recommends against___________ __________ as it has a number of undesirable consequences such as increasing aggressive behavior, anxiety, depression, substance use, and is correlated with poor school performance.

184

Longitudinal Design

in which the research follows the subjects over a period of time

185

nurture

development determined by our environment, the place we grow up in, the people around us, external factors

186

physical activity

It is recommended that children get 60 minutes of____________ __________ a day. ___________ __________ seems to be not only good for the body but the brain as well. But only about 50% of children get the exercise they need.

187

Operant Conditioning

Rather than association, __________ _________ is based on the consequences that follow a behavior.

188

puberty

When a child will enter_________ is dependent upon both the genetic make-up and the environment. Research suggests a number of factors may influence the timing of __________ including nutrition, obesity, excessive exercise, exposure to chemicals, stress or family changes. The age at which a child enters __________, early maturation before peers, or late maturation after peers can impact the child psychologically and socially.

189

Little Albert experiment, conducted by Watson and Raynor...

The famous __________ __________ _________ conducted by _________ and _________ took an infant, Albert, who was unafraid of animals and paired a rat with a loud noise (babies are naturally afraid of loud noises) scaring Albert. After the pairing Albert was afraid of the rat and even other animals when the noise was no longer presented. Learning theorists propose that our emotional responses and attitudes both positive and negative are developed through similar associations, or Classical Conditioning.

190

Sensorimotor

Preoperational

Concrete Operations

Formal Operations

Piaget defined 4 stages of cognitive development.

191

John B. Watson and Rosalie Raynor

____________ and ___________ used Classical Conditioning to show how children can learn behaviors such as fear which had previously been thought to be inborn tendency.

192

Reciprocal Determinism

Bandura differs from learning theorists who believe that people are passively shaped by the environment. He instead believes in_____________ ______________ - that humans shape the world around them just as the world works to shape the individual. A person’s biology, psychology, and cognitive processes influence the way the world interacts with the person. Yet he agrees with learning theorists that the environmental experiences fundamentally impact an individual’s development.