Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (192):
2–5 (some prefer to describe as toddlers children who have begun to walk and are age 1–3)
Science had thought that most of the brain’s growth occurred in utero and the first three years of life. Research has shown that the_____________ ___________ goes through another incredible period of brain growth, forming new pathways and pruning away pathways that are not well used. The brain development is uneven and seems to occur in an unfortunate direction. Brain regions located further back, the regions associated with processing emotions, and memories, and the reward center appear to mature earlier than the pre-frontal cortex region which is the logical, reasoning, regulating part of the brain. Psychologist David Walsh writes, “It is as if a teenager's brain has a fully functional car accelerator but the brakes have not been installed yet”.
Another cognitive development theory was presented by ________ _________.
______________ - not directly experienced by the child but influencing the living environment. For example the parents’ work or friends, neighborhood
ego integrity vs despair
Erikson’s final stage of life,____ __________ vs__________, focused on whether the individual accepts their life for what it was and experiences a sense of fulfillment or sees the actions and relationships of life as meaningless or less than hoped for.
____________ ___________: there is a maximum life span – a limit on the number of years that each species can live, this is a species specific genetic program. Mayflies live for 24 hours. The Bowhead whale can live for 200 years. Human life maximum life span is estimated at 125 years. The average human life span is 78 years in the U.S. today but it varies by genetic makeup, sex, culture, socioeconomic status, level of exercise, stress, obesity.
Trust vs Mistrust
First year: are basic needs met
__________________ - the pattern of events over time so it is not just a snapshot of life, but a chain of events over the life span.
The body and brain are part of _____________ Development.
is seen when both factors increase or decrease together.
___________ such as drownings and motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in childhood, followed by cancer, and third, gunshot wounds. And more than 9.2 million individuals under 18 years old are treated in emergency rooms each year for nonfatal injuries (cdc.gov)
Damage or Error Theories
____________ or _________ _________: This theory proposes that wear and tear, a buildup of damage to cells and organs over the years results in death. Cells are reproducing throughout our life but later in life errors in replication, or damage leads to diseases and biological aging.
nature – nurture debate
The ___________-__________ _________ no longer seems to be an either or, now the discussion focuses more on how nature and nurture link in development.
A _____________ is a prediction, an explanation of what we see.
life span development
________ _______ ___________ is studied by many disciplines including historians, economists, anthropologists and sociologists.
During the _________ __________, the libido is quiet.
aspects of the experiment are discussed afterwards as needed
Parenting research indicates it is best to use ______________ ______________.
The ____ is impulsive, irrational, selfish and seeks immediate gratification. At birth, it is the only thing
Conception to birth
which combine both, taking a cross section of cohorts and assessing throughout a period of time.
sleeping habits, sleep phase delay
Poor___________ _________ may be in part due to homework requirements, work schedules, social media, but teens also are responding to a biological natural shift called _________ _________ _________. The body moves toward going to sleep about two hours later. Researchers have suggested altering the time so that high school begins later in the morning. This would accommodate to the adolescent change in circadian rhythms. Not getting enough sleep is associated with decreased motivation and difficulty concentrating, lack of frustration tolerance and depression.
________________ - development of synapses, the connections within the brain.
18–25 or even 29 (transitional period between adolescence and adulthood)
take better care of our brain
In addition, research is suggesting that we can______ ________ ______ of ______ ______ as we take better care of our bodies and this can influence mental as well as physical aging.
Integrity vs Despair
65/older: life was meaningful or not
Zone of Proximal Development
__________ of __________ ____________ - the area of difference between what a learner can do without help and what the learner can do with help. Teaching in this zone was the most effective means of encouraging learning and development.
________________ applied systems theory to child development. It is represented in a series of rings of influence around the child/individual. From inner ring to outer ring:
The second component develops during infancy. The _____ is the rational force that tries to effectively find ways of meeting the id’s needs.
an in-depth examination of an individual or unit (i.e. family)
language, learning, memory, problem solving and other mental processes are part of ____________ development.
Is development universal, common to all
humans, or highly influenced by the milieu/culture the child grows up in?
______ _______ in the Psychosocial Theory expanded to include the life span
One of the most interesting findings with research on infants is that infants have capabilities________ ________ what was first believed.
something desirable is removed following a bad behavior.
___________________ look to describe, predict, explain and optimize development.
a __________ increases a behavior
The four major theories:
1. Psychoanalytic Theory of Freud, Erikson
2. Learning Theory of Pavlov, Skinner,Bandura
3. Cognitive Developmental Theory of Piaget
4. Ecological Systems Theory of Bronfenbrenner
A woman experiences a specific pattern in a____________ _________ of about a four-week span. During this month, levels of estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone rise and fall in a specific pattern.
Bobo doll experiment
___________ __________ _____________ in which children imitated how an adult model interacted with a _________ __________. If the model was rewarded the children were more likely to imitate the behavior. If the model was punished they were less likely to imitate the behavior. Bandura called this vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment as it was secondhand, not directly delivered to the children.
life-span developmental model of health
A_____-________ __________ ___________ of ____________ understands that health is determined as noted above by both genetic and environmental influences. In addition, it is influenced by social and historical factors, and personal choices. It looks at health from a multidimensional perspective and recognizes that changes in health involve both gains and losses over the life span.
_____________ - child’s genotype (genetic identity) and phenotype (actual physical characteristics) provoke responses from people in the child’s environment
In the ____________ ___________ we observe a situation of interest and we develop a hypothesis-we then test our hypothesis through research and develop a theory-This may mean accepting or rejecting the hypothesis and may require many observations/experiments to reach a conclusion that is supported by data.
Piaget proposed_______ ________ but research has found that abilities occur much earlier in infants and young children, and that different abilities may proceed at different rates and therefore the lines between stages may be more fluid.
Observe the strength of relationship between different factors. Does not show cause and effect.
A major health change in adolescence is____________
Vygotsky’s ______________ _____________ stressed the idea of the Zone of Proximal Development
truthfully and fully
Report information __________ ______ ________ even if not the results that had been expected or hoped for.
minds and bodies
How we care for our ____________ and _____________ as we develop is important as success in aging is greatly based in our lives as children, adolescents, and adults.
an explanation of a certain situation or occurrence
investigating biological systems, such as the cell, organs, anatomy, and the whole organism utilizing tests such as blood pressure, hormone level, brain blood flow in an fMRI
rite of passage
a ritual that marks a person’s “passage” from one status to another, usually in reference to the transition from childhood to adulthood.
Genetically informed research
______________ ____________ _____________ -tries to determine whether there are genetic explanations for apparent environmental effects.
systematic changes and continuities in the individual that occur between conception and death, or from “womb to tomb.”
The five psychosexual stages of development are:
not a normal part of aging.
Diseases such as dementia which cause serious brain damage are________ a _________ part of ___________.
the majority of research samples in studies published in American psychology journals were Americans yet _____ % of the world’s population is not American.
Changes and continuities in perception, language, learning, memory, problem solving, and other mental processes.
creative and cognitive functioning.
Research suggests that there is greater coordination between the hemispheres in the adult brain allowing for increased______________ and ___________ _____________.
Initiative vs Guilt
3-6 yrs: carry out own plans or not
___________ ___________as we age include changes in physical appearance such as wrinkles, looser skin, hair thinning or greying. Acute illnesses such as colds and infections become less frequent than in childhood but sensory loss and chronic diseases and disorders become more common.
One important feature developed in the child’s brain is_____________ – neurological functions become focused in one hemisphere or the other. In most people, the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and specializes in the analytical, logical processes. And the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body and specializes in the more intuitive, creative processes.
A ____________ decreases a behavior.
Messages are sent through the __________ __________ - a broad band of nerve fibers that join the two hemispheres.
id, ego, superego
Freud’s theory included these three components of personality. Freud felt conflict between the three components was inevitable.
Autonomy vs Shame
1-3 yrs: do for oneself or self doubt
observing our sample in natural surroundings
________________ - the biology of the child and the immediate physical/social environment, usually the family.
_______________ - other microsystems that impact the child i.e. day care, school, peers
the physical changes that occur from conception to maturity
Reinforcement and punishment
____________ and ____________ can both be delivered in positive (add something), or negative, (withdraw something), ways.
65 years and older (some break out subcategories such as the young-old, old-old, and very old based on differences in functioning)
Ecological or Bioecological Systems Theory
_______________ or _____________ ____________ ____________ -was developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner. Systems theory, or systems science, is the interdisciplinary study of systems. It has a focus on the interactions and interdependence of the parts of a system. Change in one part of the system affects other parts and also affects the system as a whole.
physical and mental exercise
the adult brain benefits from_____________ and ____________ _____________.
If Operant Conditioning increases a behavior it is called a _____________.
Protection from harm
researchers are bound to not physically or psychologically harm the participant
Changes and carryover in personal and interpersonal aspects of development, such as motives, emotions, personality traits, interpersonal skills and relationships, and roles played in the family and in the larger society.
Passive, Evocative, Active
Gene-Environment Correlations are noted: ___________ __________ ___________
in which the sample is composed of different cohorts
As with children, adolescents are not reaching their optimal level of__________ _________.
Newborn babies are born immune to many diseases as they carry the antibodies of their mothers. This immunity goes away, however, so___________ are necessary to prevent illnesses that a child could die from, and help keep others safe as well.
average human life span
The________ ________ ______ _____ is 78 years in the U.S. today but it varies by genetic makeup, sex, culture, socioeconomic status, level of exercise, stress, obesity.
the deterioration of organisms (including humans) that leads inevitably to their death
The male sex hormone,_______________ level varies from individual to individual and apparently is influence by time of day and time of the year (peak levels in the morning and in spring). Men do not experience the sharp drop in hormones noted with women but for each year over age 30, the level of_______________ in men starts to slowly dip at a rate of around 1 percent per year. Both men and women can experience a decrease in________________ level and it may result in changes in energy level, sex drive, strength.
____________ ____________ - abstract thought and hypothetical possibilities as explore the world
A _________ is the group that is studied.
Generativity vs Stagnation
40-65 yrs: contributing or lack of purpose
Aging had been looked at as a time of decline and loss. Today we recognize_______________, the ability to form new brain cells and neural pathways, continues into adulthood.
Social Cognitive Theory
Social Learning Theory
______________ ____________ _____________(also known as______________ ____________ ___________) developed by Albert Bandura stressed the active thinking process that he saw as an essential aspect of human learning and development. He suggested that humans learn very differently than do other species. He agrees that we can learn from behavioral techniques noted above but notes as humans we also think about our own behavior and consequences and adjust our actions. We reward and punish ourselves with not only things but also mentally, with positive and negative self-talk.
a transitional period between adolescence and full-fledged adulthood that extends from about age 18 to age 25 and maybe as late as 29.
information is protected, shared only as permission was granted or as required by law.
One reason we study ____________ is to see how nature and nurture encourage or impede _____________.
systems theory to child development. It is represented in a series of rings of influence around the child/individual. That series from inner ring to outer ring is as follows:
Intimacy vs Isolation
20-40 yrs: close relationship or loneliness
__________________ - impact of the larger culture, societal values, historical influences
If_____________ ____________ is used it should not be overly harsh but be mild and administered immediately after the act so it is properly paired with the offense, consistently to the offense, accompanied by an explanation, and used sparingly along with positive reinforcement.
The _______ ________ has its focus on the mouth as a source of pleasure, obtaining gratification from the mother.
___________ - the environment provided by parents reflects the genes of both the parents and the child
Accidents, Nutrition & Physical Activity
In exploring the health of a child, we often look at: ______________ _______________ & __________ __________
Pavlov later ran an experiment showing they would salivate to a ______ if initially paired with meat.
As a child ____________, it takes in new information from experience.
__________ ___________ - removal of connections deemed unnecessary
Each socially defined age group in a society—is assigned different statuses, roles, privileges, and responsibilities.
At_________________, (usually occurs between 45 and 55 years but can be as early as 30s and late as 60s) a woman no longer ovulates, or menstruates and is no longer able to conceive a child. There tends to be negative stereotypes about menstrual cycles and_________________, but severe reactions are rare.
Cognitive Developmental Theory
______________ _____________ ____________ was developed by Jean Piaget. He had, throughout his life, been interested in zoology, biology, and philosophy and wondered how humans acquired knowledge.
_______________ __________ was developed by Sigmund Freud. He focused on the basic inborn, biological urges and drives, the instincts of the human being. His theory revolves around unconscious motivation. But he also saw the early environment, how the parents interacted with the child during the first five years of life, as fundamental in development.
We have discussed how nature and nurture interact. The genetic makeup may actually influence the kinds of____________ an individual will have.
The ___________ develops from the ego as the three to six-year-old child internalizes the moral standards of the parents
____________ __________ is something good that occurs after a behavior.
______ _______ was a developmental psychologist, rather than a neurologist like Freud. He believed there were stages of development in which specific “crisis” or “conflicts” needed to be resolved or it would impact the ability of the individual to resolve the next stage. But he saw the stages less as biological and unconscious and more as social, interactive and rational. He proposed eight stages of development.
Societies tend to divide the ________ _________ into periods and age grades
Recent research has also found a greater degree of______________ than was once thought. This allows the brain to compensate for loss of ability in one area of the brain with pathways in another part of the brain.
focus on the anus, toilet training, conflict between biological urges and societal expectations. Development of the ego.
physical fitness, poor eating and sleeping patterns
Lack of________ ________ , ________ ___________ and ____________ ____________ are issues of concern with this age group. The CDC found that more than half of U.S. teens age 12-15 are physically unfit. Teens rarely get the necessary exercise per day, more than 1/3 of teens are overweight or obese and many show health risks of high blood pressure, high cholesterol and high blood sugar. And research findings actually show that poor physical health can negatively impact cognitive ability.
The growth of the body and its organs, the functioning of physiological systems including the brain, physical signs of aging, changes in motor abilities, and so on.
___________ - the genotype influences the kinds of environment the individual seeks.
maximum life span
there is a_______ _______ _______ – a limit on the number of years that each species can live, this is a species specific genetic program. Mayflies live for 24 hours. The Bowhead whale can live for 200 years. Human life______ _______ _______ is estimated at 125 years.
Regarding ___________: 1 in 3 children in the U.S. is obese. This number has tripled since 1970. Obesity in childhood can lead to high blood pressure, asthma and sleep apnea, joint and musculoskeletal problems, heartburn, gallstones, low self-esteem, bullying, and is related to anxiety and depression. More likely to grow up to be adults with obesity and face a greater risk of heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. And it disproportionally affects children from low- income families.
So far aging is inevitable. Today the discussion of aging is often centered on____________ _________, aging with a focus on quality of life not just the number of years one lives.____________ _________ may mean being free of illness that limits activity, or maintaining good family or friend relationships, or being resilient in the face of hardship.
fixated or stuck
If a child does not develop smoothly through a stage, they will become _________ or _______ . Consequently they will exhibit behavioral symptoms of that stage throughout the life span.
Process (everyday life), Person (individual differences), Context (setting), and Time (longitudinal). Or the ________ __________.
sleeping, REM sleep (rapid eye movement)
Infants spend more time___________ and more time in_________ __________ (_____ ______ ______) than other periods of life. This is thought to play an important role in consolidating learning.
Learning theory was based on the work of physiologist ______ _______ who discovered Classical Conditioning.
____________ believed that active socio-cultural interaction resulted in development. He suggested that experience could lead to development rather than development leading to learning as suggested by Piaget.
________________ - develops language, pretend play but egocentric and not yet logical
groups of individuals born at the same time
as developmental scientists define it, involves more than biological _________; it refers to a range of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes, positive and negative, in the mature organism. In short, development involves gains, losses, neutral changes, and continuities in each phase of the life span, and__________ is part of it.
________ are born with reflexes, survival reflexes such as breathing and sucking that will be permanent and other reflexes referred to as primitive reflexes, that we do not completely understand, such as swimming and stepping that will disappear in early_________.
Gradual and mild degeneration
____________ and __________ ____________of the nervous system does occur in normal aging, but much of this occurs in the sensory motor areas of the brain rather than in the prefrontal cortex.
Western ethnocentric attitude
- a belief in the superiority of white middle class
- may influence research design, procedures and measures leading to seeing minorities and other cultures as deficient.
nature – nurture debate
The _______-________ ________ addresses causality in development.
as one factor increases the other factor decreases.
Bronfenbrenner thought to research and understand development researchers needed to use a__________ __________.
draws conclusions by synthesizing information from many many studies.
focus on the genitals, desire for opposite sex parent. Development of the superego.
An advantage noted in childhood is increased brain___________ – the ability of the brain to reorganize itself and form new pathways if there is damage to a part of the brain.
emotions, traits, interpersonal skills and relationships are parts of _______________ development.
__________ __________ is a simple form of learning in which a stimulus that has no effect can elicit a response from a subject after being paired with a stimulus that already had an effect on the subject.
The ________ _________ occurs with puberty, a time of sexual instincts when the individual seeks a mature relationship with the goal of reproduction.
rite of passage
a ritual that marks a person’s passage from one stage to another.
6 to about 10 (or until the onset of puberty)
the systematic changes that occur over a life span.
Survey data collection
using verbal or written questionnaires on our sample
A _________ __________ is not a punishment as it increases the behavior
__________ __________ emphasized nurture over nature. How children turn out is not due to inborn tendencies but rather entirely on the environment in which they grow up. In contrast to the unobservable in psychoanalytic theory, based their conclusions on observation in experiments.
25–40 years (adult roles are established)
critical or sensitive periods
_____________ or ____________ ____________ -times in which growth will proceed most easily and rapidly. If opportunities to develop these skills are absent during these critical or sensitive periods then later development may not occur or will occur at a much lower level. The better we understand infant ability and brain growth the better we can support development.
a well substantiated, verified explanation.
_________-_________ means the action is grounded in research and demonstrated to be effective.
_______________can improve cardiovascular and respiratory functioning, slow bone loss, and strengthen muscle. And exercise also appears to have a positive effect on cognitive ability as we age.
Life span development
________ ________ ____________ covers prenatal development through dying and death and all the in-betweens
____________is a biological process resulting in sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce. This process is triggered by hormones that stimulate physical growth and secondary sex characteristics. These include in females enlarged breasts and menstruation and in males, facial hair growth, Adam’s apple and spermarche or semenarch (first ejaculation of viable sperm).
safe and necessary.
One poorly done study suggested that immunizations could cause cognitive issues later on and this one study has been used over and over again to resist vaccinating children. All other research suggests vaccines are__________ and ____________.
1. Physical (body and brain)
2. Cognitive (language, learning, memory, problem solving and other mental processes)
3. Psychosocial (emotions, traits, interpersonal skills and relationships)
Specifically, we will explore development in three main areas:
______________ - that we construct our own understanding of the world through active interaction, and experience. This active process required both a basis of biological wiring, and interaction with the world.
______in and of itself is not the only factor, individual differences can be notable. There may be an active 70-year-old who is in better physical condition than a sedentary 40-year old.
___________ ___________ - logical, practical approach to understandding the real world
a socially defined age group in a society that comes with its own set of expectations, privileges and responsibilities
manipulation of an independent variable to see the effect on a dependent variable
____________ are their understanding of the world around them.
Bandura highlighted_____________ _____________ - we learn by observing the behavior of other people. He saw this as an active process, we pay attention, and place our observations in memory to refer to later in guiding our behavior.
If Operant Conditioning decreases the behavior it is called a _______________.
Healthy diet, exercise, continued learning and social interaction
_________ ______ , _________ , __________ ____________ and __________ __________ all appear to be important in aging well.
Does development proceed in small continuous changes (___________) or in a series of qualitatively different steps or stages (____________).
As well genetically informed research looks at_________ _________, changes in gene expression that do not involve changes to the underlying DNA, but can be passed on to the next generation. An example of this is research showing that a mother’s exposure to pollution could impact her child’s asthma susceptibility. In other words, certain life circumstances can cause genes to be inactive or expressed over time.
A _________ should be coherent (internally consistent), testable and supported by data.
Identify vs Role confusion
12-20 yrs: establish sense of who are
____________ ___________ is when something unpleasant is taken away after the behavior.
an unpleasant response occurs following a behavior
hormone level changes
Research suggest both men and women experience __________ _________ _________ during adulthood.
_________________ - use of senses and motor actions to explore and understand the world.
Development determined by evolution, biological influences, a genetic code and chemicals in our body and brain
____________ is the shared understandings and way of life of a people. It includes beliefs, values, and practices concerning the nature of humans in different phases of the life span, what children need to be taught to function in their society, and how people should lead their lives as adults.
Are human beings actively participating in and influencing their own development (________) or are humans shaped by forces outside of their control (_________).
The impact of the internal genetic make-up, and biological processes (________) and the impact of external influences (_________).
First 2 years of life (the first month is the neonatal or newborn period)
_______________ was another learning theorist, he proposed another manner of conditioning that he called Operant Conditioning.
the subject understands and voluntarily agrees to participate in the research
psychosexual stages of development
Freud proposed five _______________ ___________ of ____________ based in the biological sexual instinct he referred to as libido.
Industry vs Inferiority
6-12 yrs: master age skills or not
Approximately 10–18 (or from puberty to when the individual becomes relatively independent)
Research also recommends against___________ __________ as it has a number of undesirable consequences such as increasing aggressive behavior, anxiety, depression, substance use, and is correlated with poor school performance.
in which the research follows the subjects over a period of time
development determined by our environment, the place we grow up in, the people around us, external factors
It is recommended that children get 60 minutes of____________ __________ a day. ___________ __________ seems to be not only good for the body but the brain as well. But only about 50% of children get the exercise they need.
Rather than association, __________ _________ is based on the consequences that follow a behavior.
When a child will enter_________ is dependent upon both the genetic make-up and the environment. Research suggests a number of factors may influence the timing of __________ including nutrition, obesity, excessive exercise, exposure to chemicals, stress or family changes. The age at which a child enters __________, early maturation before peers, or late maturation after peers can impact the child psychologically and socially.
Little Albert experiment, conducted by Watson and Raynor...
The famous __________ __________ _________ conducted by _________ and _________ took an infant, Albert, who was unafraid of animals and paired a rat with a loud noise (babies are naturally afraid of loud noises) scaring Albert. After the pairing Albert was afraid of the rat and even other animals when the noise was no longer presented. Learning theorists propose that our emotional responses and attitudes both positive and negative are developed through similar associations, or Classical Conditioning.
Piaget defined 4 stages of cognitive development.
John B. Watson and Rosalie Raynor
____________ and ___________ used Classical Conditioning to show how children can learn behaviors such as fear which had previously been thought to be inborn tendency.