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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (72):
1

The 5 elements that are related to a season, an organ, and food

Wood, fire, Earth, Metal, Water

2

Yin Organs

solid, more vital (heart, over, pancreas, kidney, lungs

3

Yang Organs

hollow, most health problems (gall bladder, intestines, bladder)

4

____ is covered by insurance in the US due to its effectiveness

Acupuncture

5

____ exists side by side with _____ in Chinese hospitals

TCM, Western Medicine

6

_____ is the root for many common medical practices such as eating garlic, yoga, and using supplements

Ayurveda

7

_____is a symbiotic and balanced relationship between nature (universe) and the supernatural world

Health

8

Vata dosha

(ether and air) nerves, circulation, respiration, elimination
nervous, anxious. Thin

9

Pitta dosha

(fire and water) metabolism of organs and cells
pretty cheerful

10

Kapha dosha

typically overweight, set in their ways
(water and earth) growth and protection

11

Curanderismo

A Mexican American folk art practiced at home in conjunction with Western medicine

12

Curanderismo

Based on Christian beliefs, along with the belief that God can heal directly or through a person who has a gift from God to be a healer

13

Curanderismo sources of illness

Natural: Germs and other factors
Supernatural: Evil spirit, witch, sorcerer, devil
Lack of balance/harmony between the natural and supernatural can cause illness

14

Curanderismo Treatments

Material: Household items and religious symbols
Spiritual: Trance, out of body travel, medium
Mental: The power of the curandero

15

Native American Medicine Practices (4)

Herbal remedies
Ritual purification or purging
Use of symbolic rituals and ceremonies
Use of healers (medicine men/women or shaman)

16

Native American source of illness

Link between humans and the natural world
Human fate is linked to the trees, mountains, sky, and oceans (Navajo idea of Walking in Beauty)
Animals, plants/trees, bugs, rocks, and wind are all sacred
Sickness is the result of imbalance

17

Native American traditional treatments

Sweat lodge
Medicine wheel
Sacred hoop
Singing

18

If bewitchment or personal/family crisis is suspected, the _____ (spiritual diviner or traditional healer) is called

Sangoma

19

African American Beliefs

Health beliefs reflect cultural roots in African healing, medicine of the Civil War (South), European medical and anatomical folklore, West Indies Voodoo, and Christianity

20

A strength-based, preventive approach to research and interventions

Positive Psychology

21

Thriving — Paradoxical outcome in which adversity leads to greater psychological and/or physical well-being “Psychological Bodybuilding”

Positive Psychology

22

Basics of Fredrickson’s Broaden-and-Build Model

Negative emotions tend to limit our options, positive emotions tend to broaden them
Negative emotions can make a person act quickly (i.e., fight or flight)

23

Fredrickson’s Broaden-and-Build Model

Adaptive and evolutionary value of our positive emotions

24

CNS consists of...

brain and spinal cord

25

PNS consists of...

neural pathways and is divided into the somatic and autonomic branches

26

Frontal Lobe

Involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments. Most advanced, higher level processing

27

Parietal Lobe

Includes the sensory cortex; receives information from skin and body, consciousness.

28

Occipital Lobe

Includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field

29

Temporal Lobe

Includes the auditory areas

30

Parasympathetic

Rest or digest

31

Sympathetic

Fight or Flight

32

Adrenals :

glands on top of the kidneys; their core is the adrenal medulla

33

Epinephrine:

neurotransmitter that causes increased heart rate and constriction and dilation of certain blood vessels, stimulates the process of gluconeogenesis

34

The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

Usually impacted in long-term realms of stress, Involved in a lot of the neurobiology of the mood and anxiety disorders, temporarily inhibit pain

35

Anterior Pituitary

Master gland, Most of the hormones secreted control other endocrine glands (gonadotropic; others to signal growth hormone release), controlled by hypothalamus

36

Posterior Pituitary

Releases oxytocin, related to childbirth, controlled by hypothalamus

37

Thyroid Gland

regulates growth and metabolism,

38

Thyroxine Axis

A polypeptide messenger goes from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary, which releases a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), can stay in the body for long periods of time when stress is chronic

39

Pancreas

Glucagon raises the concentration of glucose in the blood, Insulin controls the conversion of sugar and carbohydrates into energy

40

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI):

the study of the relationship between the psychological, neurological, and immunological interactions

41

Stress may play a role in ____% of all illnesses

50-80%

42

antigens

bacteria, viruses, and parasites

43

Skin and mucous membranes

bacteria that enter the skin are attacked by leukocytes, innate protective system

44

Phagocytes

Destroy antigens in bloodstream by engulfing and digesting them

45

Macrophages (big eaters)

Patrol body for worn out cells

46

Natural killer (NK) cells

Destroy viruses and tumor cells in blood and body tissues by injecting them with lethal chemicals

47

B cells

White blood cells that attack antigens by producing specific antibodies

48

T cells

White blood cells that attacks antigens directly, without producing antibodies

49

Cytotoxic Cells (T-Cell)

“Killer cells” equipped with receptors that match one specific antigen, kill specific cells

50

Helper T Cells

Sentries that travel through the bloodstream hunting antigens and secreting chemical messengers (lymphokines), which stimulate other immune cells

51

Suppressor T Cells

Produce chemicals that suppress immune responding in T and B cells when an antigen is vanquished

52

Immunoglobulin

The antibodies that B cells produce, soluble proteins, Circulate in the bloodstream, bind to viruses,

53

“The First Punch” (cellular mediated immunity)

Cellular, Quickly localize the site of injury or infection, Natural killer cells, granulocytes, macrophages, and T Cells

54

The knockout shot (Humoral immunity strategy)

noncellular fluid, Type 2 T-helper cells work with B Cells, Impacts the Hypothalamus too (increase sleep, decrease movement, appetite again, sexual function/desire)

55

Cortisol:

Feedback loop to decrease CNS regulation

56

Neuropeptides

released during exercise enhance the immune system’s response

57

Sick role:

people look for support and empathy from others when they are feeling ill

58

secondary gains

The reward of relaxation, extra care/love and attention of others

59

how to genders react to alcohol and depression?

Women - depression drives drinking more
Men- depression tends to stop drinking

60

Confirmation bias

People are likely to interpret what you see in a way that is consistent with your beliefs, only looking for support of your beliefs, ignore everything else

61

Misattributions

You mislabel other factors to external situations,
Might blame the wrong reason for a cold/illness and move to a confirmation bias

62

appraisal delay

Taking a lot of time to recognize you have a symptom

63

illness delay

Time between recognition and deciding to get care

64

utilization delays

Time between deciding to seeking care and actually getting out there and doing it

65

Adherence:

The extent to which a patient’s behavior matches with his or her practitioner’s advice

66

Explanatory Style

Patients who dwell on attempting to assign blame for their plight fare more poorly

67

Coping Strategies

People cope with hospitalization much as they cope with other stressors,
Seeking to assign blame for a serious illness hinders emotional adjustment

68

Informational Control

focus on the procedures and sensations that accompany a treatment

69

Cognitive Control

direct attention to the positive aspects of a procedure (e.g., improved health)

70

Behavioral Control

teach techniques for controlling pain and speeding recovery

71

Sensitizers

People who cope with health problems and other aversive events by closely scanning their bodies and environments for information

72

Repressors

People who cope with health problems by ignoring or distancing themselves from stressful information