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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (215):
1

hypothesis

a statement of a possible relationship between two (or more) variables.

2

JEAN PIAGET: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (1896-1980)

Saw cognitive development (the way we think and understand) in 4 stages:

3

looking-glass self

Cooley’s term for a self-image based on how we think others see us

4

correlation coefficient

When using statistical analysis to describe the relationship between variables, the______________ ______________ is very important.

5

sociological perspective

sociology’s special point of view that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people

6

THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION

Intersects biography (who we are) with history (what we were in the past).

7

Generalizability

findings can be applied to the larger population from which the sample is drawn.

8

SOCIAL CONFLICT

Critical of Structural-Functionalism

9

ERIK H. ERIKSON: EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
Stage 3 - Pre-school:

Initiative vs., Guilt (learning to make friends; afraid to displease parents).

10

ROBIN WILLIAM’S LIST OF 10 U.S. VALUES

• 1. EQUAL OPPORTUNITY
• 2. ACHEIVEMENT AND SUCCESS
• 3. MATERIAL COMFORT
• 4. ACTIVITY AND WORK
• 5. PRACTICALITY AND EFFICIENCY
• 6. PROGRESS
• 7. SCIENCE
• 8. DEMOCRACY AND FREE ENTERPRISE
• 9. FREEDOM
• 10. RACISM AND GROUP SUPERIORITY

11

Integrity

must be honest, fair, and respectful of others while conducting research. Cannot knowingly act in a manner that cause harm to participants of the study; cannot be misleading or deceptive.

12

popular culture

cultural patterns that are widespread among a society’s population

13

Sublimation

selfish desires channeled into acceptable behaviors.

14

symbol

anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture

15

scientific method

Sociologists use the____________ ____________ to study the social world.

16

SYMBOLS

anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture.

17

Why do we need to have a global perspective???

The society we live in shapes our life and opportunities we have.

18

Problems Sociology Examined
resulting from Industrialization

Decline of traditional, agricultural communities.

19

manifest functions

the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern

20

social dysfunction

any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society

21

SOCIAL CONFLICT

Karl Marx – critical of capitalism.

22

critical sociology

the study of society that focuses on the need for social change

23

SOCIAL-CONFLICT ANALYSIS OF CULTURE

Links culture and inequality.

24

Problems Sociology Examined
resulting from Industrialization

Overcrowded slums, increase in crime, and pollution.

25

Symbols

could consist of objects or even body language or gestures.

26

Social issues

affect large numbers of people; are rooted in the social structure and history.

EXAMPLE: Massive layoffs due to economic decline of the country.

27

structural-functional approach

a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability

28

variable

Concepts are converted into what is called a “___________” – must be measurable and quantifiable.

29

SYMBOLIC INTERACTION

Focus on meanings/interaction.

30

high-income countries

the nations with the highest overall standards of living

31

measurement

a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case

32

Research Step 1:

deciding on a topic to investigate.

33

Social Responsibility

should contribute their knowledge to helping the public good; are socially responsible to the communities and societies in which they live and work.

34

resocialization

radically changing an inmate’s personality by carefully controlling the environment

35

ERIK H. ERIKSON: EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

Stage 6 - young adulthood

Intimacy vs. . Isolation
(establishing intimate close relationships or being alone.)

36

ERIK H. ERIKSON: EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

Stage 5 - adolescence

Identity vs. Confusion (establishing a sense of identity; may be confusing process for many).

37

Professional Competence

must be qualified by education, training, and/or experience. Must recognize the limitations of their expertise.

38

dependent variable

the variable that changes

39

Reliability

the findings can be repeated by other researchers conducting the same research with the same design, data, etc.

40

SYMBOLIC INTERACTION

Symbols

41

Research Step 4:

choosing a research design and ways to gather your data.

42

interpretive sociology

the study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world

43

empirical evidence

information we can verify with our senses

44

The Sapir-Whorf Thesis

people understand the world only in terms of the language they speak. Some words are not translatable in other cultures.

45

experiment

a research method for investigating cause and e ect under highly controlled conditions

46

Research Step 3:

identifying and defining core concepts.

47

THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION

It allows us to see how society influences individual and group life.

48

personality

a person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling

49

society

people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture

50

science

a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation

51

ERIK H. ERIKSON: EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

Stage 4 - Preadolescence

Industry vs. Inferiority
(Establishing independence; may feel inferior if we fail).

52

sensorimotor stage

Piaget’s term for the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses

53

folkways

norms for routine or casual interaction

54

Dependent variable

the variable to be explained or predicted.

55

operationalize a variable

specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable

56

THE STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF CULTURE

• Incest taboo
• The family
• Funeral rites
• Jokes/humor

57

observation

confirmed

verified

assumes that a) knowledge of the social world can be obtained through_____________; and b) this knowledge must be______________ and ___________ by others.

58

independent variable

the variable that causes the change

59

survey

a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions on a questionnaire or in an interview

60

Sociology

The scientific and systematic study of society.

61

SOCIAL CONFLICT

Competition key in producing conflict.

62

nonmaterial culture

the ideas created by members of a society

63

correlation

a relationship in which two (or more) variables change together

64

gender-conflict theory (feminist theory)

the study of society that focuses on inequality and con ict between women and men

65

Culture

Values, beliefs, and material objects that form a people’s way of life.

66

SYMBOLIC INTERACTION

Reality is socially constructed.

67

Benefits of a Sociological Perspective

Real truth vs. “Common Sense”.

68

macro-level orientation

a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole

69

ERIK H. ERIKSON: EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

Stage 7 - Middle Adulthood

Making a Difference vs. Self- absorption (contributing to lives of others or world in general)

70

SOCIAL CONFLICT

conflict inevitable /brings about social change.

71

SOCIAL-CONFLICT ANALYSIS OF CULTURE

Believes culture (esp. U.S.) is influenced by materialism.

72

multiculturalism

a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions

73

stereotype

a simplified description applied to every person in some category

74

race-conflict theory

the study of society that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories

75

Socialization

the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture

76

Benefits of a Sociological Perspective

Better understanding leads to active participation.

77

SOCIAL CONFLICT

maintain power/own interests.

78

STRUCTURAL- FUNCTIONALISM

Events functional for society – keeps stability.

79

Independent variable

the variable that explains, predicts, or influences the dependent variable.

80

Folkways

Norms that guide casual interaction, i.e., etiquette.

81

repeatable

valid

Results of social research must be_______________ by others in order for the findings to be ____________.

82

Validity

the study actually measures what it intends to measure.

83

beliefs

specific ideas that people hold to be true

84

research method

a systematic plan for doing research

85

sociobiology

a theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology a ects how we create culture

86

agriculture

large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources

87

Respect for People’s rights, Dignity, and Diversity

cannot discriminate on any basis and must be sensitive to cultural, individual, and role differences.

88

Individualism

Stressing the freedom of action of the individual over the state or collective (group).

89

middle-income countries

nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole

90

Natural

Most people regard what they see in society as “____________” and may reject alternative explanations for problems society faces.

91

Why do we need to have a global perspective???

Having a global perspective increases our self-awareness.

92

afrocentrism

emphasizing and promoting African cultural patterns

93

norms

rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members

94

social structure

any relatively stable pattern of social behavior

95

Individualism

Guides how we view social problems in the U.S. and around the world.

96

culture

the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people’s way of life

97

Norms

rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members.

98

The rhesus monkey experiment....

Study indicated that 6 months of complete isolation was seriously harmful to the monkey’s development.

99

Total institution

a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff

100

SOCIAL-CONFLICT ANALYSIS OF CULTURE

Social change in the form of movements is necessary to correct inequality.

101

validity

actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure

102

high culture

cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s elite

103

spurious correlation

an apparent but false relationship between to (or more) variables that is caused by some other variable

104

social-conflict approach

a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates con ict and change

105

Debunking

refers to “looking behind the facades of everyday life.”

106

theory

a statement of how and why speci c facts are related

107

Cultural Appropriation

claiming the cultural creation of another cultural group without permission or acknowledgement of the group that created it.

108

cohort

a category of people with something in common, usually their age

109

pastoralism

the domestication of animals

110

Id

Superego

The ______ and the ____________ in constant conflict.

According to Freud

111

society

people who live in a defined territory and share a way of life

112

STRUCTURAL- FUNCTIONALISM

“bad” parts of society functional/serves some purpose
(crime).

113

ERIK H. ERIKSON: EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
Stage 2 - Toddler-hood:

Autonomy vs. Doubt/Shame (child
learning to be confident in coping with world around him/her).

114

Id, Ego & Superego

Freud’s personality model - 3 elements

115

THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION

The society we live in shapes our behavior.

116

micro-level orientation

a close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations

117

cultural relativism

the practice of judging a culture by its own standards

118

concept

a mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in a simplified form

119

culture shock

personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life

120

values

culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living

121

STRUCTURAL- FUNCTIONALISM

Social Darwinism

122

technology

knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings

123

horticulture

the use of hand tools to raise crops

124

Critical distance

taking a step back, detaching one’s self from unquestioned engagement, and seeing things for the real – not the ideal.

125

language

a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another

126

ERIK H. ERIKSON: EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
Stage 1 - Infancy:

trust vs. Mistrust

127

material culture

the physical things created by members of a society

128

Research Step 6:

reporting your findings.

129

JEAN PIAGET: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (1896-1980)

Stage 2: Preoperational stage

2 years of age.
Language formation; thinking about world; not abstract.

130

SOCIAL-CONFLICT ANALYSIS OF CULTURE

Cultural Appropriation – claiming the cultural creation of another cultural group without permission or acknowledgement of the group that created it.

131

STRUCTURAL- FUNCTIONALISM

Manifest and Latent Functions

132

concrete operational stage

Piaget’s term for the level of human development at which individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings

133

id

Freud’s term for the human being’s basic drives

134

Regression Analysis

statistical (quantitative) approach to determine if there is a predictive correlation between two variables.

135

mass media

the means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience

136

anticipatory socialization

learning that helps a person achieve a desired position

137

hunting and gathering

the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food

138

feminism

support of social equality for women and men

139

low-income countries

nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor

140

JEAN PIAGET: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (1896-1980)

Stage 3: Concrete operational stage

7-11 years of age.
Making connections to surroundings; attach more than one symbol to event.

141

cause and effect

a relationship in which change in one variable (the independent variable) causes change in another (the dependent variable)

142

theoretical approach

a basic image of society that guides thinking and research

143

Benefits of a Sociological Perspective

Seeing both opportunities and constraints in our lives – society deals us a “hand to play.”

144

positivism

a scientific approach to knowledge based on “positive” facts as opposed to mere speculation

145

Problems Sociology Examined
resulting from Industrialization

Exploitation of workers and greater wealth for industrialists/capitalists.

146

JEAN PIAGET: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (1896-1980)

Stage 4: Formal operational

age 12.
Abstract & critical thinking skills; metaphors.

147

Research Step 2:

literature review

148

ETHICS

(rules of conduct in respect to human action) should guide all social research.

149

AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION

The Family
The School
The Peer Group
The Mass Media

150

Research Step 5:

analyzing the data to draw conclusions.

151

JEAN PIAGET: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (1896-1980)

Stage 1: Sensorimotor stage

birth to 2 years of age.
World explored through senses.

152

significant others

people, such as parents, who have special importance for socialization

153

ethnocentrism

the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture

154

symbolic-interaction approach

a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals

155

ageism

prejudice and discrimination against older people

156

cultural transmission

the process by which one generation passes culture to the next

157

TOTAL INSTITUTIONS

A setting in which individuals are isolated from the rest of society and are manipulated by administrative staff.

158

social functions

the consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole

159

Benefits of a Sociological Perspective

Acceptance of a more diverse world.

160

mores

norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance

161

TOTAL INSTITUTIONS

First Step:

“breaking the person down”.

162

formal operational stage

Piaget’s term for the level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically

163

objectivity

or personal neutrality in conducting research

164

cultural integration

the close relationships among various elements of a cultural system

165

superego

Freud’s term for the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual

166

Correlation coefficient

a number between 0 and 1; represents the strength and direction of the change caused in one variable by another; can be positive (as the IV increases, the DV increases and vice versa), or negative (as the IV increases, the DV decreases).

167

industry

the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery

168

THE STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF CULTURE

Looks at cultural universals.

169

sapir-Whorf thesis

the idea that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language

170

SYMBOLIC INTERACTION

Focus on meanings/interaction.

171

Professional and Scientific Responsibility

must show respect for other sociologists even when they disagree.

172

hypothesis

a scientific guess to predict how the independent and dependent variables are related.

173

generalized other

George Herbert Mead’s term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as references in evaluating ourselves

174

global perspective

the study of the larger world and our society’s place in it

175

reliability

consistency in measurement

176

subculture

cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population

177

Society

a system of interactions taking place within a shared space.

178

gerontology

the study of aging and the elderly

179

Cultural universals

traits that are part of every known culture

180

SOCIAL CONFLICT

Central question .......Who benefits?

181

variable

a concept whose value changes from case to case

182

social control

attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior

183

cultural lag

the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system

184

personal troubles

social issues

The social context helps us tell the difference between_____________ _______________and___________ ____________.

185

ego

Freud’s term for a person’s conscious e orts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society

186

ERIK H. ERIKSON: EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

Stage 8 - Old Age

Integrity vs. Despair (feeling satisfied with one’s accomplishments in life or feeling like a failure).

187

Total Institutions

Have 3 distinctive characteristics:

all aspects of daily living supervised.

Environment is highly standardized and uniform.

Rules and schedules dictate when, where, and how inmates perform daily tasks.

188

preoperational stage

Piaget’s term for the level of human development at which individuals rst use language and other symbols

189

Personal troubles

privately felt problems that come from events or feelings in one’s life.

Example: you get laid off from your job.

190

sociology

the systematic study of human society

191

postindustrialism

the production of information using computer technology

192

positivist sociology

the study of society based on scientific observation of social behavior

193

latent functions

the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern

194

STRUCTURAL- FUNCTIONALISM

stability and order in society

195

gender

the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male

196

Socialization

the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture.
Continuous process.
Key to human survival.
Nurture vs. nature...which matters more?

197

counterculture

cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society

198

self

George Herbert Mead’s term for the part of an individual’s personality composed of self-awareness and self-image

199

THE STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF CULTURE

Focuses on values as the key in binding people together.

200

SOCIAL CONFLICT

Society is an arena of inequality.

201

Why do we need to have a global perspective???

Social problems in the U.S. are far more serious in other parts of the world (and vice-versa).

202

Eurocentrism

the dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns

203

patterns of social interaction

Predicting___________of___________ ____________ is the goal of sociology

204

STRUCTURAL- FUNCTIONALISM

Parts of society interdependent/Interrelated

205

GEORGE HERBERT MEAD: THE SOCIAL SELF (1931)

Self

The “_________” - that part of us that has self-awareness and self-image.

- Does not exist at birth.

- person “takes the role of other.”

There are 3 sides to _________:
● I
● Me
● Generalized Other

206

Why do we need to have a global perspective???

Societies are increasing interconnected (look at economy).

207

Language

is a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with each other; transmit culture.

208

SYMBOLIC INTERACTION

Meanings learned – organization around them – changes...

209

SOCIAL-CONFLICT ANALYSIS OF CULTURE

Attacks capitalism as encouraging competitiveness, self-centeredness, and prejudice.

210

gerontocracy

a form of social organization in which the elderly have the most wealth, power, and prestige

211

peer group

a social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common

212

Mores

norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance.

213

TOTAL INSTITUTIONS

2nd Step:

involves building a new self in the inmate.

214

Problems Sociology Examined
resulting from Industrialization

Creation of cities close to factories.

215

participant observation

a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities