Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (149):
A disorder marked by a persistent refusal to eat and an irrational fear of being overweight
The tubelike structure at the end of the cell body that sends information to other neurons
An adjusted ratio of weight to height used to define overweight.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
A disorder marked by binge eating periods and purging through self-induced vomiting or with laxatives
The center of the neuron that contains the basic biological machinery that keeps the neuron alive
Wrinkled surface of the brain; made up of about 10 billion neurons; regulates many of the functions that we think of as distinctly human
The link between the hemispheres of the brain and is made up of millions of axons in a thick bundle
The receiving end of the neuron
Method of studying the brain that involves measuring the brain’s electrical activity from electrodes placed on the scalp
Shortly before birth, these cartilage structures turn to bone
Changes in the brain due to experiences that are not linked to specific ages and that vary across individuals and across cultures.
Changes in the brain from environmental influences that typically occur at specified points in development and for all children
A brain region that regulates personality and goal-directed behavior
A technique for measuring brain activity that uses magnetic fields to track the flow of blood in the brain
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
A hormone, secreted by the pituitary gland during sleep, that regulates growth by triggering the release of other hormones that cause muscles and bones to grow
The right and left halves of the cortex
Being small for one’s age because of inadequate nutrition
The onset of menstruation
A fatty sheathe that surrounds neurons in the central nervous system and allows them to transmit information more rapidly
A flat group of cells present in prenatal development that becomes the brain and spinal chord
A cell that is the basic unit of the brain and nervous system; specializes in receiving and transmitting information.
Chemicals released by terminal buttons that carry information to nearby neurons.
Changes in bodily organs directly involved in reproduction that are signs of physical maturity.
A collection of physical changes that marks the onset of adolescence, such as the growth spurt and the growth of breasts or testes.
Physical signs of maturity in body parts not linked directly to the reproductive organs.
Changes in physical development from one generation to the next; for example, the fact that people in industrialized societies are larger and are maturing earlier that in previous generations.
Secular Growth Trends
The first spontaneous ejaculation of sperm-laden fluid; typically occurs at age 13.
The gap between one neuron and the next.
Gradual loss of unused synapses, beginning in infancy and continuing into early adolescence.
Small knobs at the end of an axon that release neurotransmitters.
The age at which a fetus can survive because most of its bodily systems function adequately, typically at 7 months after conception.
Age of Viability
A prenatal diagnostic technique that involves withdrawing a sample of amniotic fluid through the abdomen using a syringe.
Fluid in the amnion that cushions the embryo and maintains a constant temperature.
An inner sac in which the developing child will rest.
A measure to evaluate the newborn's condition, based on breathing, heart rate, muscle tone, presence of reflexes and skin tone.
A cry that starts softly and gradually becomes more intense; often heard when babies are hungry or tired.
The fertilized egg 4 days after conception; consists of about 100 cells and resembles a hollow ball.
A birth in which the feet or bottom are delivered first, before the head.
The wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many distinctly human functions.
A surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the mother's abdomen to remove the baby from the uterus.
Cesarean Section (C-Section)
A prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from the chorion.
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
During labor, the appearance of the top of the baby's head.
The outer layer of the embryo, which becomes the hair, outer layer of skin, and nervous system.
The name given to the developing baby after the zygote is completely embedded in the uterine wall.
The inner layer of the embryo, which becomes the lungs and the digestive system.
A disorder affecting babies whose mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol while pregnant.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
The branch of medicine that deals with treating prenatal problems.
A branch of fetal medicine in which defective genes are replaced with synthetic normal genes.
A small cluster of cells near the center of the zygote that develops into the baby.
Lack of oxygen during delivery, typically because the umbilical cord becomes pinched or tangled during delivery.
The process in which the zygote burrows into the uterine wall and established connections with the mother's blood vessels.
A more intense version of a basic cry.
The middle layer of the embryo, which will become the muscles, bones and circulatory system.
Sleep in which heart rate, breathing, and brain activity are steady.
A cry that begins with a sudden, long burst, followed by a long pause and gasping.
The longest period of prenatal development, extending from the ninth week after conception until birth.
Period of the Fetus
The structure through which nutrients and wastes are exchanged between the mother and the developing child.
A condition affecting 10% to 15% of new mothers in which irritability continues for months and is often accompanied by feelings of low self-worth, distributed sleep, poor appetite and apathy.
A baby born before the 38th week after conception.
The many changes that turn a fertilized egg into a newborn human.
Irregular sleep in which an infant’s eyes dart rapidly beneath the eyelid while the body is quite active.
Rapid-Eye-Movement REM Sleep
Unlearned responses that are triggered by specific stimulation.
Newborns who are substantially smaller than would be expected based on the length of time since conception.
As applied to teen pregnancies, the view that when teenage girls give birth, this triggers a set of events that make it harder for them to provide a positive environment for their children’s development.
As applied to teen pregnancies, the view that the same factors that make some teenage girls more likely than others to become pregnant make those girls less effective as parents.
A disorder in which the embryo’s neural tube does not close properly during the first month of pregnancy.
A person’s physical and psychological responses to threatening or challenging situations.
A disorder in which a healthy baby dies suddenly, for no apparent reason; typically occurs between 2 and 4 months of age.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
A technique for calming a crying baby in which the baby is wrapped tightly in a blanket.
An agent that causes abnormal prenatal development.
A prenatal diagnostic technique that involves bouncing sound waves off the fetus to generate an image of the fetus.
A structure containing veins and arteries that connects the developing child to the placenta.
A thick, greasy substance that covers the fetus and protects it during prenatal development.
Finger-like projections from the umbilical blood vessels that are close to the mother’s blood vessels and thus allow nutrients, oxygen, vitamins and waste products to be exchanged between mother and embryo.
The fertilized egg.
A variation of a specific gene.
The first 22 pairs of chromosomes.
The branch of genetics that deals with inheritance of physical and psychological traits.
Threadlike structures in the nucleus of the cel that contain genetic material.
A molecule composed of four nucleotide bases; the biochemical bases of heredity.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Twins that are he result of two separate eggs by two sperm.
Dizygotic (Fraternal) Twins
The form of a allele whose chemical instructions are followed.
A disorder, caused by an extra chromosome, that causes intellectual disability and a distinctive appearance.
The continuous interplay between genes and multiple levels of the environment (from cells to culture).
A group of nucleotide bases that provide a specific set of biochemical instructions.
A person’s hereditary makeup.
A measure of the extent to which heredity contributes to individual differences in a trait for a group of people.
When the alleles for a trait differ from each other.
When the alleles for a trait are the same.
A type of dementia caused by a dominant allele; characterized by a degeneration of the nervous system beginning in middle age.
The situation in which one allele does not dominate another completely.
The technique of fertilizing eggs with sperm in a Petri dish and then transferring several of the fertilized eggs to the mother’s uterus, where they might implant in the lining of the uterine wall.
In Vitro fertilization
A process by which experience changes the expression of DNA - the genetic code is preserved but a gene is silenced in a methyl molecule.
Twins that result when a single fertilized egg splits to form two new individuals.
The process of deliberately seeking environments compatible with one’s genetic makeup.
Forces within a family that make children different from one another.
Non-Shared Environmental Influences
The physical, behavioral, ad psychological features that are the result of the interaction between one’s genes and the environment.
When phenotypes are the result of the combined activity of many separate genes.
An allele whose instructions are ignored when it is combined with dominant allele.
The 23rd pair of chromosomes; these determine the sex of the child.
A disorder in which individuals show signs of mild anemia only when they are seriously deprived of oxygen; occurs in individuals who have one dominant allele for normal blood cells and one recessive sickle-cell allele.
The issue of whether children are simply at the mercy of the environment (passive child) or actively influence their own development through their own individual characteristics (active child).
Active-Passive Child Issue
A scientific discipline that uses child-development research to promote healthy development, particularly for vulnerable children and families.
Applied Developmental Science
Detailed, systematic observations of individual children, often by famous scientists, that helped to pave the way for objective research on children.
An approach to development that focuses on how children think and on how their thinking changes over time.
A group of people born in the same year or same generation.
An issue concerned with whether a developmental phenomenon follows a smooth progression throughout the life span or a series of abrupt shifts.
A statistic that reveals the strength and direction of the relation between two variables.
A research design in which investigators look at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world.
A time in development when a specific type of learning can take place; before or after the critical period, the same learning is difficult or even impossible.
A research design in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time.
The knowledge, attitudes, and behavior associated with a group of people.
In an experiment, the behavior that is observed after other variables are manipulated.
According to Freud, the rational component of the personality; develops during the first few years of life.
A theory in which development is seen from an evolutionary perspective and behaviors are examined for their survival value.
A systematic way of manipulating factors that a researcher thinks cause a particular behavior.
A type of experiment in which the researcher manipulates independent variables in a natural setting so that the results are more likely to be representative of behavior.
According to Freud, the element of personalty that desires immediate gratification of bodily wants; present at birth.
Observational learning; learning that takes place simply by observing others.
Learning that occurs during a critical period soon after birth or hatching, as demonstrated by chicks creating an emotional bond with the first moving object they see.
The factor that is manipulated by the researcher in a an experiment.
A person’s decision to participate in research after having been told enough about the research to make an educated decision; children are not legally capable of giving informed consent.
A research design in which a single cohort is studied over multiple times of measurement.
The view that child development reflects a specific and prearranged scheme or plan within the body.
A tool that allows researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables.
A special type of longitudinal study in which children are tested repeatedly over a span of days or weeks, with the aim of observing change directly as it occurs.
A method of observation in which children are observed as they behave spontaneously in a real-life situation.
An issue concerning the manner in which genetic and environmental factors influence development.
Learning based on watching others; imitation.
A view of learning, proposed by Skinner, that emphasizes reward and punishment.
A broad group of children that is the usual focus of research in child development.
A view first formulated by Freud in which development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages.
A theory proposed by Erikson in which personality development is the result of the interaction of maturation and societal demands.
Applying an aversive stimulus or removing an attractive stimulus; an action that discourages the reoccurrence of the response that it follows.
A variation of an experiment in which the impact of an independent variable is examined by groups that are created after the fact, not by random assignment, and are equated statistically.
A consequence that increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated.
As applied to tests, how consistent test scores are from one testing time to another.
An overall conceptual plan for research; the most common are correlational and experimental designs.
The tendency for research participants to respond in ways that are socially acceptable.
A group of children drawn from a population that participates in research.
The belief that one is capable of performing a certain task.
A measurement method in which children respond to questions about specific topics.
A theory developed by Bandura in which children use reward, punishment and imitation to try to understand the world.
Social Cognitive Theory
A method in which a researcher creates a setting to elicit the behavior of interest.
According to Freud, the moral component of the personality that has incorporated adult standards of right and wrong.
A method of observation in which investigators watch children and record what they do or say.
An organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development.
As applied to tests, the extent to which the test measures what it purports to measure.