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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (149):
1

A disorder marked by a persistent refusal to eat and an irrational fear of being overweight

Anorexia Nervosa

2

The tubelike structure at the end of the cell body that sends information to other neurons

Axon

3

An adjusted ratio of weight to height used to define overweight.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

4

A disorder marked by binge eating periods and purging through self-induced vomiting or with laxatives

Bulimia Nervosa

5

The center of the neuron that contains the basic biological machinery that keeps the neuron alive

Cell Body

6

Wrinkled surface of the brain; made up of about 10 billion neurons; regulates many of the functions that we think of as distinctly human

Cerebral Cortex

7

The link between the hemispheres of the brain and is made up of millions of axons in a thick bundle

Corpus Callosum

8

The receiving end of the neuron

Dendrite

9

Method of studying the brain that involves measuring the brain’s electrical activity from electrodes placed on the scalp

Electroencephalography

10

Shortly before birth, these cartilage structures turn to bone

Epiphyses

11

Changes in the brain due to experiences that are not linked to specific ages and that vary across individuals and across cultures.

Experience-Dependent Growth

12

Changes in the brain from environmental influences that typically occur at specified points in development and for all children

Experience-Expectant Growth

13

A brain region that regulates personality and goal-directed behavior

Frontal Cortex

14

A technique for measuring brain activity that uses magnetic fields to track the flow of blood in the brain

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

15

A hormone, secreted by the pituitary gland during sleep, that regulates growth by triggering the release of other hormones that cause muscles and bones to grow

Growth Hormone

16

The right and left halves of the cortex

Hemispheres

17

Being small for one’s age because of inadequate nutrition

Malnutrition

18

The onset of menstruation

Menarche

19

A fatty sheathe that surrounds neurons in the central nervous system and allows them to transmit information more rapidly

Myelin

20

A flat group of cells present in prenatal development that becomes the brain and spinal chord

Neural Plate

21

A cell that is the basic unit of the brain and nervous system; specializes in receiving and transmitting information.

Neuron

22

Chemicals released by terminal buttons that carry information to nearby neurons.

Neurotransmitters

23

Changes in bodily organs directly involved in reproduction that are signs of physical maturity.

Primary-Sex Characteristics

24

A collection of physical changes that marks the onset of adolescence, such as the growth spurt and the growth of breasts or testes.

Puberty

25

Physical signs of maturity in body parts not linked directly to the reproductive organs.

Secondary-Sex Characteristics

26

Changes in physical development from one generation to the next; for example, the fact that people in industrialized societies are larger and are maturing earlier that in previous generations.

Secular Growth Trends

27

The first spontaneous ejaculation of sperm-laden fluid; typically occurs at age 13.

Spermarche

28

The gap between one neuron and the next.

Synapse

29

Gradual loss of unused synapses, beginning in infancy and continuing into early adolescence.

Synaptic Pruning

30

Small knobs at the end of an axon that release neurotransmitters.

Terminal Buttons

31

The age at which a fetus can survive because most of its bodily systems function adequately, typically at 7 months after conception.

Age of Viability

32

A prenatal diagnostic technique that involves withdrawing a sample of amniotic fluid through the abdomen using a syringe.

Amniocentesis

33

Fluid in the amnion that cushions the embryo and maintains a constant temperature.

Amniotic Fluid

34

An inner sac in which the developing child will rest.

Amniotic Sac

35

A measure to evaluate the newborn's condition, based on breathing, heart rate, muscle tone, presence of reflexes and skin tone.

Apgar Score

36

A cry that starts softly and gradually becomes more intense; often heard when babies are hungry or tired.

Basic Cry

37

The fertilized egg 4 days after conception; consists of about 100 cells and resembles a hollow ball.

Blastocyst

38

A birth in which the feet or bottom are delivered first, before the head.

Breech Presentation

39

The wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many distinctly human functions.

Cerebral Cortex

40

A surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the mother's abdomen to remove the baby from the uterus.

Cesarean Section (C-Section)

41

A prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from the chorion.

Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)

42

During labor, the appearance of the top of the baby's head.

Crowning

43

The outer layer of the embryo, which becomes the hair, outer layer of skin, and nervous system.

Ectoderm

44

The name given to the developing baby after the zygote is completely embedded in the uterine wall.

Embryo

45

The inner layer of the embryo, which becomes the lungs and the digestive system.

Endoderm

46

A disorder affecting babies whose mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol while pregnant.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

47

The branch of medicine that deals with treating prenatal problems.

Fetal Medicine

48

A branch of fetal medicine in which defective genes are replaced with synthetic normal genes.

Genetic Engineering

49

A small cluster of cells near the center of the zygote that develops into the baby.

Germ Disc

50

Lack of oxygen during delivery, typically because the umbilical cord becomes pinched or tangled during delivery.

Hypoxia

51

The process in which the zygote burrows into the uterine wall and established connections with the mother's blood vessels.

Implantation

52

A more intense version of a basic cry.

Mad Cry

53

The middle layer of the embryo, which will become the muscles, bones and circulatory system.

Mesoderm

54

Sleep in which heart rate, breathing, and brain activity are steady.

Non-REM Sleep

55

A cry that begins with a sudden, long burst, followed by a long pause and gasping.

Pain Cry

56

The longest period of prenatal development, extending from the ninth week after conception until birth.

Period of the Fetus

57

The structure through which nutrients and wastes are exchanged between the mother and the developing child.

Placenta

58

A condition affecting 10% to 15% of new mothers in which irritability continues for months and is often accompanied by feelings of low self-worth, distributed sleep, poor appetite and apathy.

Postpartum Depression

59

A baby born before the 38th week after conception.

Premature Infants

60

The many changes that turn a fertilized egg into a newborn human.

Prenatal Development

61

Irregular sleep in which an infant’s eyes dart rapidly beneath the eyelid while the body is quite active.

Rapid-Eye-Movement REM Sleep

62

Unlearned responses that are triggered by specific stimulation.

Reflexes

63

Newborns who are substantially smaller than would be expected based on the length of time since conception.

Small-For-Date Infants

64

As applied to teen pregnancies, the view that when teenage girls give birth, this triggers a set of events that make it harder for them to provide a positive environment for their children’s development.

Social Influence

65

As applied to teen pregnancies, the view that the same factors that make some teenage girls more likely than others to become pregnant make those girls less effective as parents.

Social Selection

66

A disorder in which the embryo’s neural tube does not close properly during the first month of pregnancy.

Spina Bifida

67

A person’s physical and psychological responses to threatening or challenging situations.

Stress

68

A disorder in which a healthy baby dies suddenly, for no apparent reason; typically occurs between 2 and 4 months of age.

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

69

A technique for calming a crying baby in which the baby is wrapped tightly in a blanket.

Swaddling

70

An agent that causes abnormal prenatal development.

Teratogen

71

A prenatal diagnostic technique that involves bouncing sound waves off the fetus to generate an image of the fetus.

Ultrasound

72

A structure containing veins and arteries that connects the developing child to the placenta.

Umbilical Cord

73

A thick, greasy substance that covers the fetus and protects it during prenatal development.

Vernix

74

Finger-like projections from the umbilical blood vessels that are close to the mother’s blood vessels and thus allow nutrients, oxygen, vitamins and waste products to be exchanged between mother and embryo.

Villi

75

The fertilized egg.

Zygote

76

A variation of a specific gene.

Allele

77

The first 22 pairs of chromosomes.

Autosomes

78

The branch of genetics that deals with inheritance of physical and psychological traits.

Behavioral Genetics

79

Threadlike structures in the nucleus of the cel that contain genetic material.

Chromosomes

80

A molecule composed of four nucleotide bases; the biochemical bases of heredity.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

81

Twins that are he result of two separate eggs by two sperm.

Dizygotic (Fraternal) Twins

82

The form of a allele whose chemical instructions are followed.

Dominant Allele

83

A disorder, caused by an extra chromosome, that causes intellectual disability and a distinctive appearance.

Down Syndrome

84

The continuous interplay between genes and multiple levels of the environment (from cells to culture).

Epigenesis

85

A group of nucleotide bases that provide a specific set of biochemical instructions.

Gene

86

A person’s hereditary makeup.

Genotype

87

A measure of the extent to which heredity contributes to individual differences in a trait for a group of people.

Heritability Coefficient

88

When the alleles for a trait differ from each other.

Heterozygous

89

When the alleles for a trait are the same.

Homozygous

90

A type of dementia caused by a dominant allele; characterized by a degeneration of the nervous system beginning in middle age.

Huntington’s Disease

91

The situation in which one allele does not dominate another completely.

Incomplete Dominance

92

The technique of fertilizing eggs with sperm in a Petri dish and then transferring several of the fertilized eggs to the mother’s uterus, where they might implant in the lining of the uterine wall.

In Vitro fertilization

93

A process by which experience changes the expression of DNA - the genetic code is preserved but a gene is silenced in a methyl molecule.

Methylation

94

Twins that result when a single fertilized egg splits to form two new individuals.

Monozygotic Twins

95

The process of deliberately seeking environments compatible with one’s genetic makeup.

Niche-Picking

96

Forces within a family that make children different from one another.

Non-Shared Environmental Influences

97

The physical, behavioral, ad psychological features that are the result of the interaction between one’s genes and the environment.

Phenotype

98

When phenotypes are the result of the combined activity of many separate genes.

Polygenic Inheritance

99

An allele whose instructions are ignored when it is combined with dominant allele.

Recessive Allele

100

The 23rd pair of chromosomes; these determine the sex of the child.

Sex Chromosomes

101

A disorder in which individuals show signs of mild anemia only when they are seriously deprived of oxygen; occurs in individuals who have one dominant allele for normal blood cells and one recessive sickle-cell allele.

Sickle-Cell trait

102

The issue of whether children are simply at the mercy of the environment (passive child) or actively influence their own development through their own individual characteristics (active child).

Active-Passive Child Issue

103

A scientific discipline that uses child-development research to promote healthy development, particularly for vulnerable children and families.

Applied Developmental Science

104

Detailed, systematic observations of individual children, often by famous scientists, that helped to pave the way for objective research on children.

Baby Biographies

105

An approach to development that focuses on how children think and on how their thinking changes over time.

Cognitive-Developmental Perspective

106

A group of people born in the same year or same generation.

Cohort

107

An issue concerned with whether a developmental phenomenon follows a smooth progression throughout the life span or a series of abrupt shifts.

Continuity-Discontinuity Issue

108

A statistic that reveals the strength and direction of the relation between two variables.

Correlation Coefficient

109

A research design in which investigators look at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world.

Correlational Study

110

A time in development when a specific type of learning can take place; before or after the critical period, the same learning is difficult or even impossible.

Critical Period

111

A research design in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time.

Cross-Sectional Design

112

The knowledge, attitudes, and behavior associated with a group of people.

Culture

113

In an experiment, the behavior that is observed after other variables are manipulated.

Dependent Variable

114

According to Freud, the rational component of the personality; develops during the first few years of life.

Ego

115

A theory in which development is seen from an evolutionary perspective and behaviors are examined for their survival value.

Ethological Theory

116

A systematic way of manipulating factors that a researcher thinks cause a particular behavior.

Experiment

117

A type of experiment in which the researcher manipulates independent variables in a natural setting so that the results are more likely to be representative of behavior.

Field Experiment

118

According to Freud, the element of personalty that desires immediate gratification of bodily wants; present at birth.

Id

119

Observational learning; learning that takes place simply by observing others.

Imitation

120

Learning that occurs during a critical period soon after birth or hatching, as demonstrated by chicks creating an emotional bond with the first moving object they see.

Imprinting

121

The factor that is manipulated by the researcher in a an experiment.

Independent Variable

122

A person’s decision to participate in research after having been told enough about the research to make an educated decision; children are not legally capable of giving informed consent.

Informed Consent

123

A research design in which a single cohort is studied over multiple times of measurement.

Longitudinal Design

124

The view that child development reflects a specific and prearranged scheme or plan within the body.

Maturational Theory

125

A tool that allows researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables.

Meta-Analysis

126

A special type of longitudinal study in which children are tested repeatedly over a span of days or weeks, with the aim of observing change directly as it occurs.

Microgenetic Study

127

A method of observation in which children are observed as they behave spontaneously in a real-life situation.

Naturalistic Observation

128

An issue concerning the manner in which genetic and environmental factors influence development.

Nature-Nurture Issue

129

Learning based on watching others; imitation.

Observational Learning

130

A view of learning, proposed by Skinner, that emphasizes reward and punishment.

Operant Conditioning

131

A broad group of children that is the usual focus of research in child development.

Population

132

A view first formulated by Freud in which development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages.

Psychodynamic Theory

133

A theory proposed by Erikson in which personality development is the result of the interaction of maturation and societal demands.

Psychosocial Theory

134

Applying an aversive stimulus or removing an attractive stimulus; an action that discourages the reoccurrence of the response that it follows.

Punishment

135

A variation of an experiment in which the impact of an independent variable is examined by groups that are created after the fact, not by random assignment, and are equated statistically.

Quasi-Experiment

136

A consequence that increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated.

Reinforcement

137

As applied to tests, how consistent test scores are from one testing time to another.

Reliability

138

An overall conceptual plan for research; the most common are correlational and experimental designs.

Research Design

139

The tendency for research participants to respond in ways that are socially acceptable.

Response Bias

140

A group of children drawn from a population that participates in research.

Sample

141

The belief that one is capable of performing a certain task.

Self-Efficacy

142

A measurement method in which children respond to questions about specific topics.

Self-Reports

143

A theory developed by Bandura in which children use reward, punishment and imitation to try to understand the world.

Social Cognitive Theory

144

A method in which a researcher creates a setting to elicit the behavior of interest.

Structured Observation

145

According to Freud, the moral component of the personality that has incorporated adult standards of right and wrong.

Superego

146

A method of observation in which investigators watch children and record what they do or say.

Systematic Observation

147

An organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development.

Theory

148

As applied to tests, the extent to which the test measures what it purports to measure.

Validity

149

Any factor subject to change.

Variable