Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

Health Psychology > Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (80):
1

What is an example of self-reinforcement?

(systematically rewarding oneself)

I can buy a new purse once I lose 10 pounds.

2

What are health promotions and what do they usually capitalize on?

Good health or wellness is a personal and collective achievement.

3

How does self-efficacy affect a person's ability to change a health behavior?

If I don't think I can do it, it's not worth even trying to do it.

4

What does the theory of planned behavior explain a health behavior to be a result of, and what are its components?

This is a direct result of a behavioral intervention.
1. Attitude
2. What do others think I should do?
3.Perception of if I am capable of making the change

5

What is self-determination theory?

People are actively motivated to change their behavior. (I will do this because I want to do this)

6

What is cognitive restructuring, and what is an example of its use?

Trains people to modify internal dialogue. "I am not weak; I can do this." Stuart Smalley

7

What does the health belief model state?

People will make changes if:
1. The person perceives a health threat
2. Believes that threat can be reduced.

8

What is the goal of threatening messages within health promotion and what is the actual result of them?

Scare the person into stopping the behavior. Results in people become more defensive.

9

How does classical conditioning work?

Unconditioned stimulus results in the unconditioned result.

Pair the unconditioned stimulus with the conditioned stimulus to result in the unconditioned response.

The conditioned stimulus will then result in the unconditioned response.

10

What is a contingency contract?

A contract you make with someone else, detailing punishments and rewards in terms of your health goals.

11

Explain the theoretical model of behavioral change.

Stages of change and suggests treatments and modifications at each stage.
1. Precontemplation
2. Contemplation
3. Preparation
4. Action
5. Maintenance

12

How to autonomic imbalances occur and how can they be measured?

One branch of the ANS dominates the other. Measured with heart rate variability.

13

Identify two aims of health psychologists

1. Prevention & treatment of illness
2. Health promotion & maintenance
3. Etiology
4. Healthcare policy/development of healthcare system

14

What are modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with biological factors associated with CVD and what are some examples?

(Cardiovascular disease)

Genetic propensity for high cholesterol, high blood pressure
Exercise
Diet

15

Who was Robert Wadlow and what was his unique condition attributed to?

Robert Wadlow - extreme growth. Tallest Man in the World.
Misfuncting of the pituitary gland.

16

What are the seven habits of healthy people?

1. 7-8 hours of sleep each night.
2. 1-2 drinks of alcohol each day
3. daily exercise
4. Eat breakfast
5. No eating between meals
6. No more than 10% overweight
7. No smoking

17

Explain the difference between prospective and retrospective research

Research that looks forward and anticipates changes vs. research that takes historical information to create a theory about the illness.

18

What specific connections did Dunbar and Alexander make in contribution to the understanding of physical illnesses?

Patterns of personality to specific illnesses. Helped shape the belief that bodily disorders are caused by emotional conflicts.

19

What advantages are there is studying health issues from a biopsychosocial perspective?

Takes into account that mind and body together determine health and wellness.

20

What are chronic illnesses characterized by, and what are some common examples in industrialized countries?

Illnesses that are lifetime illnesses. Can be degenerative. Parkinson's, Polio, MS, etc...

21

Assumes that psychological and social processes are largely irrelevant to the disease process

Biomedical model

22

The optimum state of health

Wellness

23

A balance among physical, mental, and social well-being

Health

24

The number of deaths due to a particular cause

Mortality

25

Described by Freud as a specific unconscious or psychological conflict producing physical disturbance.

Conversion hysteria

26

Attentive to biological, psychological, and social needs

Biopsychosocial model of health

27

The number of cases of a disease that exist at a given point in time

Morbidity

28

What would a researcher be studying if she were attempting to identify the frequency, distribution, and causes of an infectious disease?

Epidemiology

29

Where and how an illness started and spread

Epidemiology

30

Structural imaging technology

MRI, fMRI

31

Meta-analysis

Lots of studies taken together and analyzed

32

Theory of planned behavior

Direct result of a behavioral intention

33

Atherosclerosis

Narrowing of arteries due to buildup of plaque

34

Angina Pectoris

Chest pain

35

Cerebral Palsy

Chronic, non progressive loss of muscle control

36

Type II Diabetes

Disease of lifestyle, body either doesn't produce enough insulin or body is resistant to insulin

37

Rheumatic Fever

Strep throat gone bad, bacterial infection moved to the heart

38

Huntington's Disease

Genetic chronic physical and mental deterioration

39

Myocardial Infarction

Heart attack

40

Hep C

Commonly caused by blood transfusions. "inflammation of the liver"

41

Asthma

Severe allergic reaction

42

What do the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems do for our body?

Sympathetic: emotions
Parasympathetic: Automatic processes (heart beating, lungs breathing, etc)

43

What effects do acquired immunodeficiency syndromes have on a body?

Body attacks itself. Lupus, MS, Lymphoma, arthritis

44

What is the medical term for a heart attack and what happens when one occurs?

Myocardial infarction. Clot blocks flow of blood to heart.

45

What hormones are released by the parasympathetic system in a fight or flight reaction?

Catecholamines: epinephrine and norepinephrine

46

What glands are located at the top of the kidney and what are the functions?

Adrenal: hormone secreting. Releases catecholamines and corticosteriods

47

What happens when the body attacks its own body tissues

Autoimmunity disorder

48

Open sore in the lining of the stomach
a. Appendicitis
b. Dysentery
c. Kidney failure
d. Peptic ulcer

d. Peptic ulcer

49

Women are more at risk, can cause pain on urination
a. Diarrhea
b. Kidney failure
c. Hepatitis
d. Urinary tract infection

d. Urinary tract infection

50

Similar to diarrhea except also has mucus, pus, and blood
a. Diarrhea
b. Gastroenteritis
c. GERD
d. Dysentery

d. Dysentery

51

For women, this is a risk from several STDs
a. Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease
b. Gynecologic cancer
c. Fertility
d. Amenorrhea

a. Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease

52

Viral disease that attacks the spinal nerves
a. Parkinson's disease
b. Polio
c. Epilepsy
d. Paraplegia

b. Polio

53

Skin rash can appear on the face
a. Lymphatic
b. Lupus
c. Ulcer
d. Smallpox

b. Lupus

54

Heart's delivery of oxygen-rich blood is inadequate to meet the body's need
a. Arrhythmia
b. Myocardial infarction
c. Angina pectoris
d. Congestive heart failure

d. Congestive heart failure

55

Often idiopathic-meaning no specific cause can be identified
a. Parkinson's Disease
b. Epilepsy
c. Cerebral Palsy
d. Huntington's Disease

b. Epilepsy

56

Abnormal reflux in the esophagus
a. Gastroenteritis
b. Diarrhea
c. GERD
d. Dysentery

c. GERD

57

Inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small intestine
a. Gastroenteritis
b. Dysentery
c. Diarrhea
d. Ulcer

a. Gastroenteritis

58

Disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung
a. Pleurisy
b. Tuberculosis
c. Lung cancer
d. Bronchial pneumonia

c. Lung cancer

59

An inflammation of the mucosal membrane inside the bronchi of the lungs
a. Influenza
b. Strep throat
c. Common cold
d. Bronchitis

d. Bronchitis

60

Common condition when waste accumulate in the appendix
a. Gastroenteritis
b. Appendicitis
c. GERD
d. Hepatitis

b. Appendicitis

61

Results from injury to the spinal cord
a. Epilepsy
b. Polio
c. Paraplegia
d. Dementia

c. Paraplegia

62

Below-normal numbers of red blood cells
a. Clot
b. Anemia
c. Plasma
d. Blood Pressure

b. Anemia

63

Most likely to happen if arterial walls have been damaged or roughened due to cholesterol
a. Platelets
b. Lymphoblasts
c. Monoblasts
d. Thromboses

d. Thromboses

64

Caused by viruses, transmitted through food and water
a. Hep A
b. Appendicitis
c. Hep B
d. Ulcer

a. Hep A

65

Irregular beatings of the heart
a. Angina pectoris
b. Arrhythmia
c. Congestive heart failure
d. Myocardial infarction

b. Arrhythmia

66

Lack of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle
a. Myocardial Infarction
b. Heart Attack
c. Ischemia
d. Angina pectoris

c. Ischemia

67

Deposits of cholesterol on the arterial walls that form plaques that narrow arteries
a. Myocardial infarction
b. CHF
c. Angina pectoris
d. Atherosclerosis

d. Atherosclerosis

68

Typically a disease of lifestyle, body may not produce enough insulin
a. Cardiovascular disease
b. Type 2 diabetes
c. Type 1 diabetes
d. Parkinson's disease

b. Type 2 diabetes

69

An autoimmune disorder that falsely identifies and destroys cells in the pancreas
a. Type 1 diabetes
b. MS
c. Huntington's Disease
d. Polio

a. Type 1 diabetes

70

A malignant lymphoma is a progressive, chronic enlargement of the lymph nodes
a. Hep C
b. Heart disease
c. Hep A
d. Hodgkin's disease

d. Hodgkin's disease

71

Serious loss of cognitive ability beyond normal aging
a. Dementia
b. Polio
c. Huntington's disease
d. Multiple Sclerosis

a. Dementia

72

Early symptoms include numbness, double vision, dragging of feet, speech difficulties
a. CVD
b. Multiple Sclerosis
c. Cerebral Palsy
d. Parkinson's disease

b. Multiple Sclerosis

73

Several forms of this, means "inflammation of the liver"
a. Hepatitis
b. Ulcer
c. Gastroenteritis
d. Dysentery

a. Hepatitis

74

Progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia
a. Multiple sclerosis
b. Huntington's disease
c. Parkinson's disease
d. Epilepsy

c. Parkinson's disease

75

Chronic, non-progressive disorder marked by lack of muscle control
a. Cerebral palsy
b. Parkinson's disease
c. Huntington's disease
d. Multiple sclerosis

a. Cerebral palsy

76

Hereditary disorder of CNS
a. Epilepsy
b. Huntington's Disease
c. Multiple Sclerosis
d. Paraplegia

b. Huntington's Disease

77

What is another term for a heart attack?
a. Myocardial infarction
b. Congestive Heart Failure
c. Angina pectoris
d. Ischemia

a. Myocardial infarction

78

What types of messages are shown to be most effective for encouraging health behaviors?

Fear Appeal; Message framing that stresses health benefits

79

What is a fear appeal and what are the pros/cons?

This approach assumes that if people are afraid that a particular habit is hurting their health, they will change their behavior to reduce their fear.

Persuasive messages that elicit too much fear may actually undermine health behavior change.

80

What is message framing?

Framing a health message in positive or negative terms.