Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (72):
What are the cultures that we studied in class?
Sumer, Akkadians, Lagash, Babylonians, Assyrians, Persians, Egyptians
What is the first example of civilization?
What is Mesopotamia like?
theocracies, kings, polytheistic
What is the term for words that were carved into paper with a stylus?
What was the first writing about?
Tale of Gilgamesh
What is civilization characterized by?
Division of labor
What is the Sumerian god of the moon?
What is present day Iraq?
What is the term for a temple in ancient Mesopotamia?
How does a ziggurat demonstrate power?
It is taller (closer to the gods)
You can see it from afar
It is embellished
What are the 5 main characteristics of Mesopotamian art?
1. divided into regions
2. uses heiratic scale
3. figures are stylized
4. carved in low relief
5. has a condensed narrative
What is the Sumerian goddess of fertility?
What is the object that is dedicated to Inanna from Sumeria?
What is the term for a "comic book" style?
What is the term for the style where the more important figures are bigger?
heiratic scale or heirarchy of scale
What is the term for carving that is just around the edges, barely standing out from the background?
How are Sumerian figures stylized?
-lack of expressive faces
What is the term for a prayer figure that is doing the things that you are supposed to do (worship)?
Where were votive figures placed?
in temples, usually after the person dies
What is the term for a "one shot story"?
How does the warka vase illustrate Innana's power?
Innana is highest on the vase
lots of vegetation/gifts being given
Innana is largest, everyone is turned toward her
What is the term for an upright stone erected as a monument/columng?
What is the stele that we discussed in class?
Stele of Naram-Sin from Akkadians
How is Naram-Sin showed in power?
Naram-Sin is at the top, biggest, everyone is looking up to him, he has a crown
What is Naram-Sin also known as?
"King of the Four Quarters" or "King of the Four Regions"
What is Lagash characterized as?
A city-state, independent
What was the second votive statue we studied?
Votive statue of gudea
How tall is the votive statue of Gudea?
What is the votive statue of gudea created out of?
Diorite (not local stone)
What does the image of Gudea tell us about him as a leader?
He is god-like (water flows out)
abundance of resources
posed as a votive figure (religious)
rich and powerful
What is the Sumerian god of water?
Enki (has water flowing out)
What was the stele we studied from the Babylonians?
Stele of Hammurabi (1792-1750)
What is the Stele of Hammurabi created out of?
Basalt (hard stone)
What god does the Stele of Hammurabi depict?
Shamash, god of justice and sunlight in Babylonia
What does the Stele of Hammurabi depict in general?
Shamash is giving Hammurabi the law
How is Shamash and Hammurabi depicted in power?
Shamash is sitting on a platform (ziggurat) that is higher than Hammurabi, Hammurabi is close enough to the god to get laws (heiratic scale)
Shamash is holding the rod/law
Shamash has a hat with 4 horns on it
What is the first piece of ceramics we studied?
Ishtar Gate and Throne Room Wall
What does the Ishtar Gate have on top of it?
What is crenellation?
Toothlike decoration on top of a gate for defense and offense
Where did the Ishtar Gate go?
Went from Iraq to Berlin because British occupied and were in charge of Iraq
What type of technique did they use on the Ishtar Gate?
Glazing (from cobalt)
What are brief records of important and annual events from the Old Kingdom?
How did the Old Kingdom focus on death?
pyramids, tombs, graves (by dessert, made of stone)
What did the texts at the temple talk about?
administration, endowments, exemptions from taxes and forced labor
How does Ralph Casey define propaganda?
It has to do with any ideas or beliefs that are intentionally propagated
What does Ralph Casey say propaganda is NOT?
Not just the type that achieves "bad ends" through deceitful methods
Not limited to veiled promotion
Not the instrument of the devil
Not a selfish attempt to get people to accept ideas and beliefs
According to "The Story about Propaganda", how did the term propaganda become created?
In 1622, Pope Gregory XV created a commision of cardinals with spreading faith and regulating church affairs called the "Congregation for Propagation of Faith"
What are the tools of propaganda?
Making broad and positive statements
Similar and familiar language
Appeal to known desires
Packing meaning into short slogans
According to the "Law Code of Hammurabi, Louvre Museum", what is the law code?
An emblem of Mesopotamian civilization
High basalt stele by king of Babylon in 18th C. BC
Erected by King Hammurabi of Babylon at Sippar
What is the Code of Hammurabi content?
1. historical prologue of king hammurabi as protector of the weak and oppressed
2. lyrical epilogue of legal work
3. 300 laws of daily life and animal and civil laws
Introduction to Propaganda from Jacques Ellul definition:
Propaganda is made deliberately by a propagandist for the purpose of manipulating individuals into adopting certain ideas and behaviors
How does propaganda work according to Ellul?
Presents one side of the issue as if it were the absolute truth
Manipulates individuals to convince them that the idea or action they adopted was the one they chose thorugh their own personal volition
What type of value does propaganda have?
Propaganda teaches people...
what to think
What was the function of the "Congregation for the Propagation of faith"?
Defend Catholicism against the Protestant Reformation
What is propaganda according to Ellul?
Used by a political organization to achieve certain political or economic ends
According to Ellul, a democracy is based upon...
the notion that the voting population has influenceo n the policies a government implements
According to Noam Chomsky, who's consent do you need for propaganda?
1. political class (highly educated)
2. Those who follow orders
What is the propaganda model from Chomsky?
National media sets its own agenda by selecting topics and distributing concerns through emphasis, framing, and filtering
What is the Great Gate of Ishtar, according to Amanda Ruggeri?
Stood at the entrance to Babylon
Between Tigris and Euphrates (modern day Iraq)
One of the largest metropolis of the world
Built in 575 BC with 575 dragons and bulls
one of 8 gates
Saddam Hussein began reconstructing
What is the tomb with many soldiers in china?
Emperor Qin's Tomb
What were the assyrian entryways to the throne room called?
Guardian figures at Citadel of Sargon II
What is an Assyrian protective deity, often depicted as having a human's head and body of a bull/lion with wings?
Why are lamassu's important?
could be real
strong, ferocious animals
from a single block of stone
What is the first lion piece we studied?
Ashurnasirpal Killing Lions
From the palace at Nimrud (modern Iraq)
What does Ashurnasirpal's Killing Lions illustrate?
heirarchy of scale, horn hat, Ashurnasirpal has the horn hat, different garments and weapons
What is the second lion piece we studied?
Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions
What does Ashurbanipal Hunting Lion's illustrate?
dying lions in background
Assyrian art- panoramic, naturalism, beards, momentary snapshot of action movement
What is the Persian and Medes (Apadana of Darius & Xerxes) about?
Meant to make you feel small
leads up to the Persopolis apadana
bringing gifts to the conqueror
figure turns back
Assyrian influence- beards
Darius & Xerxes Receiving Tribute, detail from the Apadana of Darius I and Xerxes
receiving tribute, detail from the Apadana of Darius I and Xerxes
Darius is Xerxes' dad
Babylonian- god/man, Persion- man/man (bowing, guards, heirarchy of scale)
unified upper and lower egypt (unified bulls)
Narmer- big guy
papyrus- lower egypt
lotus- upper egypt
face/legs- profile, torso, front