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1

A field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior throughout the lifespan

* What is lifespan development?

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experts in lifespan development focus on...

* Biological processes and/or physical growth
* Genetic endowment
* Cognitive development
* Social development

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* Approaches to lifespan development

* Orientation
* Physical development

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* Defining characteristics

Emphasizes how the brain, nervous system, muscles, sensory capabilities, and needs for food, drink, and sleep, affect behavior

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* Ages ranges and individual differences

* Prenatal period
* Infancy and toddlerhood
* All the way to late adulthood

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* What are the influences on development?

* History graded influences- depression era
* Age-graded influences- grandparents, 9/11
* Sociocultural-graded influences- cell phones
* Non-normative life events- childhood abuse or trauma, death of parent

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* Change is gradual
* Achievements at one level build on previous level
* Underlying developmental processes remain the same over the lifespan

* Continuous Change

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* Change occurs in distinct steps or stages
* Behavior and processes are qualitatively different at different stages

* Discontinuous Change

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* Certain environments stimuli necessary for normal development
* A particular event will have the greatest consequences (reading)
* Emphasized by early developmentalists

* Critical Periods

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* People susceptible to certain environmental stimuli, but absence of stimuli is reversible
* Current emphasize in lifespan development

* Sensitive Periods

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Emphasis on the role/genetics inherited traits and abilities

Nature

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Emphasis on environmental factors affecting individual’s development

Nurture

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broad organized, explanation and prediction of a phenomenon that provides a framework for understanding

theory

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* Theorist- Sigmund Freud
* Developmental perspective- Behavior is motived by inner forces, memory, or conflicts that a personal has little awareness or control. Focused on birth to adolescents
* Basic principal/key terms- id, ego, superego, unconscious behavior
* Example- divorced parents, you don’t want to marry because you think it’ll never work out

Psychoanalytical

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* Theorist- Erikson
* Developmental perspective- 8 stages, we encounter a crisis to push us to mastery in that stage before we go to the next stage. Range is our whole life
* Basic principal/key terms- Crisis, interactions with other people, greater understanding of ourselves through those interactions
* Example- Later in life you reflect back and see all your accomplishments, but you might have regrets about what you didn’t do

Psychosocial

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* Theorist- classical- Watson. Operant- skinner
* Developmental perspective- classical- Inspired by Pavlov, dogs cued by bell- bell. We see in life where cues trigger our behaviors. Operant- voluntary or learned.
* Basic principal/key terms- classical- cues. Operant- consequences.
* Example- classical- little Albert with the loud noises to fear white furry things. Operant- positive- do well on your assignment, here’s candy. Negative- drinking because of stress

* Conditioning- classical, operant (behavioral)

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* Theorist- Bandura
* Developmental perspective- Learn from your environment, model what you see. Models demonstrate reinforcement or punishments
* Basic principal/key terms- Model, powerful examples, behavior is increased or decreased based on reinforcement
* Example- 5 year old injures someone else due to a wrestling move he saw on TV

* Social learning theory

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* Theorist- J. Piaget
* Developmental perspective- Processes to know, understand, change when children move one stage to the next. Children make small changes in behavior that forces change in the brain
* Basic principal/key terms- Assimilation/accumulation
* Example- Peek a boo with a baby, baby’s brain cannot grasp you are still present with your hands over your face. Animals hiding with half their body out, they don’t know

Cognitive

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* Theorist- C. Rogers/Maslow
* Developmental perspective- People like to be looked at in a positive way. People always try to better themselves to grow
* Basic principal/key terms- Self actualization, unconditional positive regard
* Example- Keeping people in your life who give you that low and positive regard telling you you’re valued, loved, and supported

Humanistic

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* Theorist- C. Darwin/C. Lorenz
* Developmental perspective- Survival of the fittest
* Basic principal/key terms- adaptable
* Example- Eat when hungry even when we don’t need to

Evolutionary

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* Electroencephalogram (EEG)
* Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan
* Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan

* Psychophysiological methods

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caffeine example, group, variable, independent dependent

* Treatment/experimental (people with caffeine)
* Control (group without caffeine)
* Variables
* Independent (caffeine) what you manipulate
* Dependent (test scores) measure
* Random assignment to experimental conditions- used for fairness, variety, eliminate bias.. some students might be used to caffeine

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* Measuring individual change

* Longitudinal studies

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* Measuring people of different ages at the same point in time

* Cross-sectional studies

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* A combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional studies

* Sequential studies

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the code of life

Genes and chromosomes

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Fused gametes (male and female reproduction cells) create a

zygote (* Ovum and sperm)

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* (2 billion+ chemical coded messages begin creation of human)

* Combination of genetic instructions

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* Humans receive about____ genes, contained __ chromosomes, __ pairs

25,000
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23

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specific sequences of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) on our chromosomes

Genes

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* Different forms of genes
* (Brown hair, blue eyes)

Alleles

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underlying combination of genetic material in offspring

Genotype

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allele contains similar genes from each parent

Homozygous

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allele contains different forms of genes from parents

Heterozygous

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observable trait

Phenotype

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expressed

dominant trait

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not expressed

recessive trait

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determined by many genes

Polygenic trait

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identical; share same genes and composition

Monozygotic

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ferternal

Dizygotic

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* Causes of multiple births

* Fertility drugs
* Individual difference (racial, ethnic, and national)

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XX pairing

girl

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XY pairing

boy

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* Studies the effects of heredity on behavior and psychological characteristics

behavioral genetics

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* Alzheimers disease
* Tay-sachs disease
* Muscular dystrophy
* ALS
* Sickle-cell anemia
* Cystic fibrosis
* Fragile X syndrome
* Hemophilia

* DNA-bases genetic tests

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* When the development deviates from the norm
* Causes

* Genetics
* Spontaneous mutation
* Environmental insult

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Sample of amniotic fluid; taysachs, spina bifida, sickle cell, Down syndrome, muscular dystrophy, or Rh diease

* Aminocentesis 15th-20th week

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Needle or catheter inserted into the placenta; removal of wispy, hair like tissue. Tissue separated (material and fetal) to make a strand of fetal chromosome

* Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) 8th-11th week

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* High frequency sound waves detect structural abnormalities, multiples, measure fetal growth, gestational age

* Ultrasound throughout pregnancy

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shortest stage fertilized egg = blastocyst
* Travels to and implants in the uterus
* Characterized by methodical cell division
* And cell specialization

* Fertilization —> 2 weeks
germinal stage

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* Organism firmly secures to uterus
* Major organs and basic anatomy

* Embryonic stage
* 2 weeks —> 8 weeks

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skin, hair, teeth, sensory organs, brain, spinal cord

Ectoderm

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digestive system, liver, pancreas, respiratory system

* Endoderm;

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muscle, bones, blood, circulatory system

Mesoderm

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stages of prenatal development

germinal
embryonic
fetal stage

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* Differentiation of major organs
* Rapid development
* Organs not only differentiated but begin working
* Interconnections more complex and integrated
* Brain becomes more sophisticated

* Fetal stage
* 8 weeks —> birth

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IVF GIFT, ZIFT- modifications of IVF

infertility

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* Spontaneous termination of pregnancy
* 15-20% of all pregnancy

Miscarriage

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* Voluntary termination of pregnancy
* 1 in 5 pregnancies

abortion

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Mother’s prenatal influence

* Diet
* Age
* Prenatal support
* Health
* Drug use
* Doctor recommended medications (DES, thalidomide)
* Alcohol use
* Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) / Fetal alcohol effects (FAE)
* Tobacco use

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* Oxytocin and other hormones triggered
* Uterus contracts

* Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

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* Labor initiation
* Braxton-hicks

Contractions

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1st- uterine contractions stage of labor

8-10 minutes for 30 seconds; toward end, every 2 minutes lasting 2 minutes. Transition: cervix (between uterus & vagina) widens

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2nd stage of labor

baby head moves through cervix and birth canal (90 minutes) & ends as baby leaves mother’s body

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3rd stage of labor

umbilical cord and placenta expelled from mother’s body. Quickest and easiest stage

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moment of birth?

second the baby leaves the mothers body

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Braxton hicks contractions

fake contractions

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MD who specialize in birthing babies (& prenatal care)

Obstetrician-

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nurses with specialized credentials in delivering babies

Midwife

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series of breathing exercises and visualization to help women in process of delivery naturally

Lamaze birthing techniques-

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partner coaching or husband coaching that coaches that women giving birth

Bradley method

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people undergo hypnosis and develop skills to hypnotize themselves to help them during birth

Hypnobirthing

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give birth in bathtub or shallow pool; eases transition for the baby, less stressed and trauma for baby

Water birthing

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* Epidural anesthesia

* Effects
* Reduces/eliminates pain associated with labor
* Sometimes slows labor

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preterm babies are before ___ weeks

38

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so small weight because ....

lungs didn't fully grow

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Low birth-weight infants weight

(less than 2,500 gems- 5 1/2 lbs)

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outcomes of preterm infants

* Majority eventually develop normally
* Tempo of development may proceed more slowly

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* Very low birthweight infants
around what weight and how soon ?

Smallest survivors
* Most vulnerable; immaturity of organ systems
* Weigh less than 1250 grams (around 2 1/4 lbs)
30 weeks or less

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* Risk reduction strategies of very low birthweight infants

* High quality care
* Responsive, stimulation, and organized care
* Massage

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word for newborn

neonate

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* intervening in the process of birth
* Procedure
* Baby is surgically removed from uterus

cesarean delivery

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rationale of cesarean delivery

* Occurs most frequently when fetal stress appears
* More prevalent in older mothers
* In some cases, related to position in birth canal, breech, transverse
* Routine use of fetal monitor

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risks of cesarean delivery

* Major surgery for mother, longer recovery
* Reduced stress-related hormones for neonate

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Our global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment (David Wechsler, 1939)
Reflected in effective, rational, and goal-directed behaviorCloser the genetic link, the greater correspondence between IQ scores

intelligence

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identify children struggling in school and determine effective helpmeasure different mental abilities; memory, attention, and the ability to understand similarities and differences

French government contract
Alfred binet

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average age of which the concepts were answered correctly

mental age

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combines verbal and performance measures

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)

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•Learning DisordersDifficulties in acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (KABC-II)

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consistent results (norms)

Reliability

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measures or predicts what is intended to measure or predict

Validity

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street smarts or common sense; watch others and model behavior

Practical intelligence

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individuals understand and respond appropriately to their feelings and those of others

Emotional intelligence

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Opposed psychometrics which correlate well with academic success but little else

cognitive approach

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problem solving using formulas, choosing strategies, prior learning

Componential

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using prior experience to cope with new challenges

Experiential

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effectively discerning and adapting to the real world in the moment

Contextual

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the ability to determine which mode of thinking is the best for the circumstance

METACOGNITION