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Flashcards in Exam #1 Deck (69):
1

Why do we need to define and classify?

Common nomenclature in clinical practice, research, & social and political implications

2

Limitations of defining and classifying

Labeling (person is not the diagnosis), loss of info, stereotyping, stigma

3

Prevalence

Number of active cases (point, one-year, & lifetime)

4

Point prevalence

At a given point in time

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Incidence

Number of new cases

6

Comorbidity

More than one disorder in the same person

7

Etiology

Cause

8

Onset

Acute or sudden, gradual or insidious

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Course

Chronic, acute or time-limited, episodic

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Prognosis

Forecast of course

11

Humanitarian Reform

18th century, suitable hospitals were built, patients unchained and places in more humane conditions, emphasized spiritual and moral development

12

Deinstitutionalization Movement

20th century, large number of mental hospital closures, shift to community-based residences, created problems

13

Willowbrook (1947-87)

State-supported institution for children with intellectual disabilities, overcrowded and poor conditions, controversial medial studies --> Geraldo Rivera investigation (1972)

14

Wilhelm Wundt

First experimental psych lab (1879), structuralism (structure of mind)

15

William James

Principles of Psych (1890), functionalism (purpose of behavior and consciousness), "Father of American psych"

16

Counter-conditioning: Systematic desensitization

Breaking link between CS and CR, aversive stimulus becomes less aversive (ex: use relaxation)

17

Counter-conditioning: Aversive conditioning

Pairing CS with an aversive UCS --> CR, less aversive stimulus becomes aversive (ex: pair unpleasant thing with smoking)

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Multidimensional Integrative Approach

Biological, psychological, social, and developmental influences

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Necessary cause

Must exist for disorder to exist (ex: gene)

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Sufficient cause

Guarantees occurrence of disorder

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Contributory cause

Increases probability of disorder

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Distal risk factor

Distant (ex: early abuse, childhood factor)

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Proximal (immediate) risk factors

Tell over short term

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Diathesis

Stress model, combo of inherited vulnerability/susceptibility & stress (environmental factors)

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Equifinality

Start different --> end same

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Multifinality

Start same --> end different

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Protective factor

Decreases likelihood of negative outcomes among those at risk

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Resilience

Ability to adapt successfully to even very difficult circumstances

29

4 categories of biological factors relevant to maladaptive behavior

1. Genetic vulnerabilities
2. Brain dysfunction and neural plasticity
3. NT and hormonal abnormalities
4. Temperament

30

How to measure heritability (3)

1. Family history
2. Adoption studies
3. Twin studies (MZ, DZ, compare)

31

Passive effect

Inherit genes from parents, affects how both approach environment

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Evocative effect

Child's phenotype evokes certain reaction from environment

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Active effect

How we build on environment

34

Brain abnormalities in...

Structure of brain regions, function of brain regions and neural circuits (ex: ADHD)

35

Id

Constantly striving to satisfy basic drives (pleasure principe)

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Ego

Seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways (reality principle)

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Super Ego

Voice of conscience that focuses on how we ought to behave (morality principle)

38

Psychosexual stages of development (5)

1. Oral (0-2)
2. Anal (2-3)
3. Phallic (3-5 or 6)
4. Latency (6-12)
5. Genital (after puberty)

39

Behavioral Perspective

Reactionary movement against psychoanalysis and "non-scientific" approaches

40

Extinction in conditioning

When a CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS (can return later: spontaneous recovery)

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Generalization

Response is conditioned to one stimulus and can be evoked by other similar stimuli

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Discrimination

Learning to distinguish between similar stimuli

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Observational learning

Learning through observation alone, without directly experiencing an UCS

44

Impact of behavioral perspective (3)

1. Maladaptive behavior
2. Failure to learn necessary adaptive behaviors or competencies
3. Learning of ineffective or maladaptive responses

45

Schema

Underlying representation of knowledge that guides current processing of info

46

Attributions

Process of aligning causes to things that happen

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Attribution style

Characteristic way in which individual may tend to assign causes to bad or good events

48

Universality of some disorders

Certain psychological symptoms are consistent among similar diagnosed clinical groups (ex: schizophrenia)

49

Sociocultural factors for disorders

Which disorders develop (eating disorders), prevalence (major depression rates vary), course

50

Retrospective research strategies

Involve looking back in time

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Prospective research strategies

Involve looking ahead in time

52

Psychological Autopsy

Investigation into person's death by reconstructing what they thought, felt, and did before death based on info gathered from personal docs and others

53

DSM-II to DSM-III

Explicit behavioral criteria, atheoretical approach, more detailed description, emphasis on reliability

54

Settings for assessment

Psychiatric, general medical, legal, academic/educational, psychological clinic

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Reliability

Degree to which a measurement is consistent (across time, across raters)

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Validity

Degree to which a technique measures what it is designed to measure (concurrent, predictive)

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Standardization

Application of certain standards to ensure consistency across different measurements

58

Mental status exam

Check appearance, attitude, behavior, mood, awareness of surroundings (oriented x3- person, place, time)

59

Clinical interview

Most common clinical assessment, presenting problem, history of problem, used to establish diagnosis (structured, semi-structured vs. unstructured)

60

Behavioral assessment and observation

Systematically evaluate behavior in its natural situation/context, identify ABCs, helpful for child or nonverbal patients

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Behavioral Assessment: Antecedents

Events that occur prior to behavior and can increase probability of behaviors

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Behavioral Assessment: Behaviors

Observable events performed by organism

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Behavioral Assessment: Consequences

Events that follow behaviors and can increase or decrease the probability of behaviors

64

Functional Assessment or Chain Analysis

One event leads to another, find points to intervene

65

2 types of personality tests

Projective (inkblot & TAT) and objective

66

Implicit Association test

Uses reaction time to measure strength of association between concepts and attributes

67

Classical categorical approach

Strict categories, all criteria must be met

68

Dimensional approach

Classification along dimensions with potential arbitrary cutoffs

69

Prototypical approach

There are no perfect indicators