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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (40):
1

According to our definition, an argument is

an attempt to provide reasons or evidence in support of a claim

2

T/F
The premise is the basic unit of reasoning

False

3

T/F
The following is an argument: Abortion is wrong.

False

4

T/F
The following is an argument:
Abortion is wrong because abortion involves killing a life.

True

5

T/F
According to our definition of an argument, images can contain an argument.

True

6

Consider the following argument:

Eating animals is not morally wrong because first, we need to eat meat to survive, and second, eating animals is natural.

What is the conclusion?

Eating animals is not morally wrong

7

T/F
Consider the following argument:

Abortion is wrong because abortion involves killing a life.

The premise is:

Abortion involves killing a life

True

8

The give and take between an arguer and an opponent is called:

"dialectic"

9

Determine whether or not the following passage is an argument. Choose the answer with the best justification.

I am disgusted that New Woman printed the letter from B. A. Showalter. Showalter said, "You don't see straight people pushing their lifestyle on everyone." But straight people do just that. From day one, children are assumed to be heterosexual. They are exposed to tales of heterosexual romance, pushed to enjoy the company of the opposite sex, and given little opportunity to explore the alternative.

Argument: Conclusion: Straight people and straight society do just that [pushing their lifestyle on everyone]

10

Smokers tend to think that evidence of the harm of smoking isn't very compelling. This is known as

Confirmation bias

11

The head of a commission to decide whether a new drug is safe also owns the company that produces that drug---and would profit if the drug were approved. This is an example of

Conflict of interest

12

T/F
The existence of vested interests always leads to weak arguments. In other words, the existence of vested interests in an argument automatically renders that argument a weak one.

False

13

T/F
Unconscious bias can interfere with our argument evaluation because it interferes with our ability to evaluate evidence

True

14

A math exam is administered to students that belong to a group that is associated with the negative stereotype of not performing well on math exams. before the exam, the person administering the exam tells that group of students that people like them often perform poorly on math exams. This would be an example of:

Stereotype threat

15

T/F
Relying on face-to-face first impressions is a good way to dull the effects of implicit bias

False

16

Taking a quote out of context can often lead to

Slanting by omission
Slating by omission

17

T/F
When an argument contains highly emotionally charged language where more neutral language would suffice, it is a clue that slating by distortion is present.

True

18

Which correctly describes System 1 (also known as the fast system)?

it is unconscious

19

T/F
Correcting our beliefs that are the result of visual illusions is the job of system 2 (also known as the slow system)

True

20

T/F
The more widely accepted a claim is, the more one has a burden of proof to show that that claim is true

False

21

T/F
A group of scientists from a cigarette company recently claimed that, contrary to previous studies, smoking is actually good for you. In this situation, the burden of proof is on the opponents of these scientists---those who claim that smoking is not healthy---to justify their claim that smoking is still not healthy.

False

22

T/F
Consider the following exchange:

"A: We Shouldn't eat animals we eat consciously feel pain.
B: You're just saying that because you're a hippie that wants everyone to think like you."

B's response is an example of the Red Herring fallacy

True

23

Consider the following exchange:

"A: Minors should not be given life sentences because the areas of their brains that are connected to moral decision making aren't fully developed yet, and minors that commit crimes are usually raised in terrible home environments.

B: A thinks that minors have no control over their actions and thus shouldn't be held responsible for their actions---but we all know that minors do have control over their actions."

This is an example of

The Straw Man fallacy

24

Every deductively valid argument has

A true conclusion if the premises of that argument are all true

25

Consider the following argument:

For the last (roughly) 4.5 billion years, the earth has been orbited the sun without flying off into outer space, so the earth probably won't fly off tomorrow.

This is an example of

An inductively valid argument

26

T/F
If an argument has acceptable premises, then it's impossible for that argument to be weak.

False

27

T/F
In order for an argument to be inductively valid, the connection between the premises and conclusion must be strong enough to make the conclusion likely if the premises are true.

True

28

T/F
Consider the following argument:

"Jane has a fever, body ache, and chills, so she probably had the flue."

This is an example of deductively valid argument

False

29

T/F
Consider this argument:

"4 is divisible by 2. Therefore, 4 is even."

This argument has an acceptable premise/

True

30

The following argument is complex:
"The universe shows signs of design, so there must have been a designer. Since there must have been a designer, then there must be a God."

True

31

T/F
Simple arguments do not contain sub-arguments.

True

32

T/F
Rhetorical questions are not genuine questions but rather assertions in hiding, which is why they don't call for an answer.

True

33

T/F
In an argument, the conclusion is not in dispute, and the premises shed light on why the conclusion is true.

False

34

T/F
If the words "because," "since," or "therefore" appear in a passage, then that means that an argument must be present.

False

35

What is the following?
I got a sunburn because I was outside all day and I forgot to wear sunscreen.

An explanation

36

Determine whether or not the following passage is an argument. Choose the answer with the best justification.

We had a really fun day at the beach. We played Frisbee, had a picnic, and jumped in the waves. We topped off the day with dancing at the local club.

Non-Argument: The author is describing the nice day he had at the beach.

37

What is the following?

Homosexuality is immoral because the Bible forbids it.

An argument

38

What is the following?

Drugs should be legal because the attempt to ban them creates more problems than it solves.

An argument

39

What is the following?

The sky is blue because of the way that light scatters in the atmosphere.

An explanation

40

What is the following?

Today I drank coffee and studied and then went for a walk.

Neither (an argument or explanation)