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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (84):
1

Define Biomedical engineering

The application of engineering techniques to:
-the understanding of biological systems
-advance the practice of medicine
- develop therapeutical technologies and devices

2

Distinguish Biomedical engineering from other related fields

Bioengineering/Biological Engineering -- Includes Agri. and Environment
Biosystems engineering -- Focused on agri and environmental science
Biomolecular Engineering -- Manipulation of biomoleules
Biochemistry-- Study of RXN's across biology
Biochemical/Bioprocess Engineering-- Cration of new chemical products using biological orangisms or components
Biotechnology DNA/RNA manipulation

3

List 5 rank five technical subspecialties of biomedical engineering

-Biomechanics
-Biomaterials
-Biomedical Imaging
-Bioinformatics
-Bioinstrumentation

4

What are three common entry level jobs for biomedical engineers with a BS degree

Product Design Engineer, Quality Engineer, Regualtory Affairs Associate

5

Define Tissue Engineering

Process of medicine to create regenerative solutions
1) collect cells
2) expand cells
3) Seed cells onto scaffold
4) Expand and condition Cells
5) Implant construct

6

Explain Personalized Medicine

Personalizing a person's treatment plan based on their own biomarkers. Meaning, every person gets a treatment that is oging to be ost effective for them.

7

How are advances in imaging driving improved healthcare?

With better imaging, surgeries can be less invasive, more effective. It also allows for a better diagnosis to be made much more quickly.

8

List the most common elements found in the human body (and 4 kinds of biopolymers that they compromise)

Elements: H, Na, Mg, K, Ca, C, N, O, P, S, Cl, I. 2nd: Cr, Mo, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Al, Si, B,Sn, Se, F

Polymers: proteins, lipids, polysaccharides and nucleic acids

9

Draw and label a schematic diagram representing 10 important systems that are vital to human life. Be sure to indicate which systems interact with each other

See image
10 Systems:
Respiratory
Immune
Integumentary
Musculoskeletal
Nervous
Endocrine
Digestive
Circulatory
Renal
Reproductive

10

List subcompartments where water is distributed in the human body and approximate percentage of total body water

Human body is 60% water
3 compartments:
Intracellular
Extracellular (interstitial and intravascular)

Intracellular Fluid is about 40% totally body mass
Extracellular is about 20% total body mass
Interstitial is 15%
Intravascular is 5%

11

Using a common set of small molecules as examples, explain the difference between polar and non-polar molecules. B) Why is polarity important to living systems

Polarity is due to an equal sharing of electrons. More EN atoms pull the electrons to them. Polarity is important because it affects things like what kind of molecules can pass through membranes and at what difficulty. It also is a property that affects how molecules interact with water.

12

What is meant by the term polymer?

Greek for literally "many-parts" macromolecules that are composed of a series of additions of small monomers.

13

List the four major types of biological polymers
B) provide a simple chemical or structural representation of each

Proteins (H2N-CHR-COOH)
Lipids (methyl groups (-CH2-CH2-)n
Polysaccharides (array of monosaccharides SUGARS)
Nucleic Acids (phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, base)

14

Describe what is meant by the term "Condensation reaction" and provide an example.

When water is a produt of the chemical RXN.
Proteins, Nucleic Acids and pollysaccharides

15

What is a polysaccharide?
B) Where are they commonly found in the human body?
C) What role(S) do they serve?

Sugar and carbohydrates

commonly found in muscles and liver

storage in cells, also allow storage of energy to be used later

16

What is the general chemical structure of a lipid molecule?

Fatty acid chain is a polymer of short length
Polar group, phosphate and glycerol compose a hydrophilic head

2 fatty acid chains compose the hydrophobic tail.

Held together by Van der Waals

17

What molecules are found in all cell membranes and how are they organized (which way do they face)?

LIPIDS--
HYDROPHILIC heads face outward,
HYDROPHOBIC tails are forced in the middle

18

Describe two roles of cell membranes

Provide a barrier between the cell and the outside world. Create compartments within a cell to allow certain reactions to happen there. Separate charged ions and create electrochemical gradients

19

What is the difference between saturated and cis/trans-unsaturated

Saturated means no double bonds. they're solid at room temp.
Cis/trans unsatruated are liquid at room temp, and have an alkene group. they are named after how they bend around aforementioned alkene.

20

3 differences between DNA and RNA

DNA:
1 No OH on C2
2 Double Helix
3 Stores genetic info

RNA
1 C2 has OH
2 RNA is single stranded
3 Transfers info from nucleus to cytoplasm where it's translated

21

Describe the basic structure of a nucleotide

Phosphate group-(bonded to)-Sugar-(bonded to)-Base

22

Describe what is meant by the term base pairing
B) Describe the base pairing rules for DNA and RNA
C) Describe 2 phenomena that stabilize base pairings

Base pairing means that only certain bases pair with others (CG, AT, AU)

Bases interact via H-bonds
Always purine and pyrimidine
Pi Stacking
Double helix structure

23

Be able to give complimentary strand of DNA

5'-3'
TGCA
3'/5'
TGCA

24

Decribe how dna is packaged in the nucleus of somatic cells

DNA is packaged into 23 chromosomes
dna->nucleosomes->chromatin->cromatin loops->condensed chrmatin loops-> chromsome

25

What is meant by Karyotype?
B) how is it used in medicine?

Chromsome count of an organism used to see if organism has too many or too few chromosomes

aneuploidy=abnormal # of chromosomes

26

How is a germ cell different from a somatic cell?

Somatic cells have 23 chromosomes that contain 2x the total material. germ cells only have half the genetic material because they combine and get the other half from the other germ cell

27

what is meant by the term genome

total genetic material of an organism.

28

What other organelles has DNA? Describe how it happened

Mitochondria
theory is that it was a prokayrotic cell that got swallowed up by a eukaryoitic cell.

29

Describe what is meant by the term DNA replication
Why is it important in biological systems

Process by which all the genetic material in an organism is copied

Helicase and topoisomerase unwind
DNA polymerase produces leading strand
DNA polymerase binds to the lagging strand
okazaki fragments
DNA joins them together

30

Diagram DNA replication

ADD TO 3'

31

Names and functions of the enzymes involved with DNA replication

TOPOISOMERASE
-relaxes DNA from it's coils

DNA HELICASE
-Unwinds DNA at replication fork (unzips)

SINGLE-STRAND BINDING (SSB) PROTEINS
-Bind to ssDNA and prevent DNA from re-annealing after helicase

DNA POLYMERASE
-Builds new duplex of DNA by adding in the 5'-3' direciton. proof reads/corrects errors

PRIMASE
-Provides starting point of RNA to begin synthesis of new DNA strand

RNA PRIMER
-Added by primase as place holder. happens on both leading and lagging strands

EXONCULEASE
-Removes RNA primer from both strands

DNA LIGASE
-re-anneals the semi-conservative strands and joins okazaki

32

TOPOISOMERASE

Relaxes the DNA from it's coiled nature

33

DNA HELICASE

Unwinds (unzips) DNA at replication fork

34

SINGLE-STRAND BINDING PROTEINS (SSB)

Binds to ssDNA to prevent the double helix from reforming

35

DNA POLYMERASE

Synthesizes new DNA strand ADDS IN 5'-3' direction. Proof reads and corrects errors

36

PRIMASE

Provides starting point of RNA (or DNA) for DNA polymerase to begin synthesis of the new DNA strand

37

RNA Primer

Added by primase as place holder. happens on both leading/lagging

38

EXONUCLEASE

Removes RNA primer from both strands

39

DNA LIGASE

Re-anneals the SEMI-CONSERVATIVE strands and joins okazaki

40

With regards to biology, What is the central dogma?

DNA --> RNA --> PROTEIN

41

Compare and contrast the terms transcription and translation. Whats the starting source, where it occurs, major enzyme used and what the end product is

Transcription
DNA to RNA, happens in nucleus, lots of enzymes end product is mRNA. Major enzyme is RNA polymerase

Translation
Starts as RNA (mRNA), ends as proteins, ribosome is major enzyme, occurs in cytosol

42

List 3 most common types of RNA and what they're used for

mRNA
--carries genetic code out of the nucleus

rRNA
--helps stabilize the structure of the mRNA and tRNA in the ribosome

tRNA
--Takes specific single amino acids into the ribosome to help build the new protein

43

Provide a diagram that outlines each step in central dogma of biology. put each thing in the correct place

DIAGRAM

44

What is meant by RNA processing? describe 3 steps that occur to mRNA before its translated into protein

RNA processing is the post transcriptional modifications made to the mRNA

5'cap
3' poly A tail

splicing= introns are removed, exons are kept

45

What is a ribosome made of and what's its function?

made up of RNA's and proteins, called a ribonucleoprotein. Link amino acids together. catalyzes peptide bonds

46

Describe 4 levels of protein structure

PRIMARY
--order of amino acids. Linear arrangement. covalent bonds
SECONDARY
--Specialized 3D conformations (alpha helix/beta sheets) weak interactions VDW H-bonds
TERTIARY
--Final 3D structure of amino acid chain, including disulfide bridges
QUATERNARY
--multiple chains interacting with each other

47

Describe why pH is important in biological processes involving protein function

May cause protein to denature. Parts of proteins are charged and the pH may affect which parts of the protein are available to catalyze.

48

What methods can be used to denature proteins

Heat, changes in pH, changes in ionic concentrations, expose to surfaces

49

List 4 different functions of proteins in cells

1) Supply structural Support
2) Communication inside of and between cells
--haptic (touch mediated)
-- soluble (diffusion and convection-mediated)
3) catalyzing reactions
4)Transport and storage of other biomolecules

50

What is meant by post translational modifications of proteins?

alteration/addition of proteins after being translated
glycosylated proteins
phosphorylated proteins
acetylated proteins
--addit'l folding, cutting, involves additional enzymatic protein

51

What is the difference between the term genome and proteome

Genome=all the genetic material for an organism
Proteome=all possible proteins an organism could create. much largerthan genome

52

Provide a graph to describe the mechanism for enzyme action from with regard to activation energy

DIAGRAM

53

Provide a diagram to describe the mechanism for enzyme action from a structural standpoint (explain what happens to the structure of the enzyme and substrate)

DIAGRAM

54

Define recombinant DNA What can the end products be?

DNA molecules made by bringing together genetic material fro multiple sources. End products can be the DNA itself or RNA/proteins made from DNA

55

Describe how to clone DNA using bacteria
also include plasmid, restriciton enzyme, how to insert DNA into cell, prevent growth of bacteria that didn't incorporate the desired gene

plasmid=circular ring of genetic material that also reproduces. extrachromosomal.

Restriction enzymes
--open plasmid, cut DNA from any organism at specific sequence. Creates restriciton fragments

To get DNA into cell-- transformation
--Ca2+ and heat shock
--electroporation
--enzymatic digestion of cell
--gene gun
--viral delivery

DNA ligase joins fragments together

as well as the desired gene, put an immunity to antibiotics into the added dna and plate bacteria on that antibiotic

56

Define polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Descrie steps including temp
list 2 applications of this technique

In Vitro DNA replication

Step 1 (94C)
--heat to separate strands

Step 2 (37-65 C)
--Hybridization of primers addition of DNA polymerase (taq polymerase)

Step 3 DNA synthesis

used for forensics medicine. can test for genetic diseases or HIV

57

List 5 ways a prokaryote differs from an eukaryote

Cell wall or addt'l membrane
periplasmic space
no organelles
additional nonchromosomal genetic material
flagella lack microtubules
smaller than eurkayrotes

58

Describe how one would identify the ER and list its functions

INterconnected network of membranous spaces, 2 regions CONNECTED TO NUCLEUS.
Rough
--ribosoes, protein secretion and replenishes membrane proteins
Smooth
--Regions w/out ribosomes, lipid/carbohydrate metabolism/ lipid synthesis

59

Describe how one would identify the Golgi appartus and list its functions

Wavy like ER, not connected to nucleus. interconnected network of membranous spaces

Secretes proteins and integrate proteins in endomembraous system. sorts/ packages

60

Describe an experiment to determine if a protein was capable of laterally diffusing in the membrane

FRAP or bleach.

61

Define endomembraneous system

The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a eukaryotic cell. These membranes divide the cell into functional and structural compartments, or organelles. (wiki)

62

Explain lysosome and its functions

part of endomembarnous system

used to recycle worn cell components. takes in material and degraes it. Tissue macrophages have an abundance of these. Acidic, degradative enzymes

63

Describe 3 cellular pathways that utilize lysosomes

Endocytosis: cells internalize molecules by engulfing them

Phagocytosis: cells bind and internalize particulate matter

Autophagy: destruction and removal of unnecessary or damaged organelles inside the cell

64

What is the mitchondria and its role

power house, provides energy. generates ATP. signals celluslar differentiation, cell death, cycle and growth

65

Explain what is meant by cell culture and cell culture media

Isolated sample of cells that is propogated so it can be studied further. The media is the solution which the cells are plated upon that provide nutrients. salt balance 7.4pH buffer sterile

66

Describe a general method for isolating cells for a culture

Biopsy
use physical/chemical means to break up tissue
Filter cells to remove larger tissue
Centrifuge cells
Remove excess fluid
Resuspend in culture media

67

When a culture of cells has reached confluence what happens? what has happened?

The cells have taken up the available space in the dish. apoptosis looms

68

Describe the process of splitting/passaging cell culture

Remove cells from used culture, add enzymes to release cells from plate

Remove media

Add media to collect cells

Centriufge cells

Suck up media

Resuspend in media to deisied concentration

plate

69

Explain what is meant by immortalized cell line

Cells that have undergone an oncogeneic transformation, they'll grow and split indefinetly

70

How the life cycle of primay cells differs from that of immortalized cells

Primary cells will live through several splitings, but eventually they reach their limit and die. immortalized cells will split forever.

71

Define cytoskeleton and list 3 major types of cytoskeletal proteins

Microfilaments
--provide transport pathway for intracellular transport of molecules
--locomotion
--ACTIN

Intermediate filaments
--provide cell shape, bear tension
--think of them as cables in a suspension bridge
--anchors organelles in place

microtubules
--resist compression, support beams
--intracellular transport
--mitotic spindle

Provides structure and support,
Acts as intracellular highway system
Participates in cell locomotion

72

Describe at least 3 functions of cytoskeleton

Provides structure and support,
Acts as intracellular highway system
Participates in cell locomotion

73

What is the ECM and it's 3 major components

Collection of secreted proteins and carbohydrates foundin ECM

Fibrillar proteins: collagens/elastins

Multiadhesive proteins: fibronectin and laminin

Hydrophilic proteoglycans: bind water and growth factors

74

What are the 2 major types of ECM and where are they located?

Basal Lamina : separate different tissues

Stromal: between cells within a tissue

75

Explain how 2 types of connective tissue can have different structures and funcitons

type II: Cartilage
--resist compression due to high water content

Type I: tendon collagen
--muslce to bone
resist tension

76

Describe a tight junction and where it might be found

seal cells together into sheets forming impermeable barier

skin cells
membranes
intesitnal ephithelium

77

Describe a gap junction and where it might be found

communication junctions. form channels that allow small molecules to pass

hear and neuronal structures

78

Describe the Cell Cycle and provide a diagram that shows its phases and subphases with descriptions

G0=resting
G1 and G2, growing
S synthesizing DNA
M= mitosis
--prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase,
cytokinesis

79

Prophase

condensation of chromatin, nucleolus disappears

80

prometaphase

nuclear envelope disintegrates and microtubules bind to kinetochore and begin moving chromosomes

81

metaphase

choromsomes aligned along plate @ equator

82

anaphase

chromosomes pulled toward poles

83

telophase

Nuclear membrane reforms

84

cytokinesis

Cells divide and other other components are grown as needed.