Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (84):
Define Biomedical engineering
The application of engineering techniques to:
-the understanding of biological systems
-advance the practice of medicine
- develop therapeutical technologies and devices
Distinguish Biomedical engineering from other related fields
Bioengineering/Biological Engineering -- Includes Agri. and Environment
Biosystems engineering -- Focused on agri and environmental science
Biomolecular Engineering -- Manipulation of biomoleules
Biochemistry-- Study of RXN's across biology
Biochemical/Bioprocess Engineering-- Cration of new chemical products using biological orangisms or components
Biotechnology DNA/RNA manipulation
List 5 rank five technical subspecialties of biomedical engineering
What are three common entry level jobs for biomedical engineers with a BS degree
Product Design Engineer, Quality Engineer, Regualtory Affairs Associate
Define Tissue Engineering
Process of medicine to create regenerative solutions
1) collect cells
2) expand cells
3) Seed cells onto scaffold
4) Expand and condition Cells
5) Implant construct
Explain Personalized Medicine
Personalizing a person's treatment plan based on their own biomarkers. Meaning, every person gets a treatment that is oging to be ost effective for them.
How are advances in imaging driving improved healthcare?
With better imaging, surgeries can be less invasive, more effective. It also allows for a better diagnosis to be made much more quickly.
List the most common elements found in the human body (and 4 kinds of biopolymers that they compromise)
Elements: H, Na, Mg, K, Ca, C, N, O, P, S, Cl, I. 2nd: Cr, Mo, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Al, Si, B,Sn, Se, F
Polymers: proteins, lipids, polysaccharides and nucleic acids
Draw and label a schematic diagram representing 10 important systems that are vital to human life. Be sure to indicate which systems interact with each other
List subcompartments where water is distributed in the human body and approximate percentage of total body water
Human body is 60% water
Extracellular (interstitial and intravascular)
Intracellular Fluid is about 40% totally body mass
Extracellular is about 20% total body mass
Interstitial is 15%
Intravascular is 5%
Using a common set of small molecules as examples, explain the difference between polar and non-polar molecules. B) Why is polarity important to living systems
Polarity is due to an equal sharing of electrons. More EN atoms pull the electrons to them. Polarity is important because it affects things like what kind of molecules can pass through membranes and at what difficulty. It also is a property that affects how molecules interact with water.
What is meant by the term polymer?
Greek for literally "many-parts" macromolecules that are composed of a series of additions of small monomers.
List the four major types of biological polymers
B) provide a simple chemical or structural representation of each
Lipids (methyl groups (-CH2-CH2-)n
Polysaccharides (array of monosaccharides SUGARS)
Nucleic Acids (phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, base)
Describe what is meant by the term "Condensation reaction" and provide an example.
When water is a produt of the chemical RXN.
Proteins, Nucleic Acids and pollysaccharides
What is a polysaccharide?
B) Where are they commonly found in the human body?
C) What role(S) do they serve?
Sugar and carbohydrates
commonly found in muscles and liver
storage in cells, also allow storage of energy to be used later
What is the general chemical structure of a lipid molecule?
Fatty acid chain is a polymer of short length
Polar group, phosphate and glycerol compose a hydrophilic head
2 fatty acid chains compose the hydrophobic tail.
Held together by Van der Waals
What molecules are found in all cell membranes and how are they organized (which way do they face)?
HYDROPHILIC heads face outward,
HYDROPHOBIC tails are forced in the middle
Describe two roles of cell membranes
Provide a barrier between the cell and the outside world. Create compartments within a cell to allow certain reactions to happen there. Separate charged ions and create electrochemical gradients
What is the difference between saturated and cis/trans-unsaturated
Saturated means no double bonds. they're solid at room temp.
Cis/trans unsatruated are liquid at room temp, and have an alkene group. they are named after how they bend around aforementioned alkene.
3 differences between DNA and RNA
1 No OH on C2
2 Double Helix
3 Stores genetic info
1 C2 has OH
2 RNA is single stranded
3 Transfers info from nucleus to cytoplasm where it's translated
Describe the basic structure of a nucleotide
Phosphate group-(bonded to)-Sugar-(bonded to)-Base
Describe what is meant by the term base pairing
B) Describe the base pairing rules for DNA and RNA
C) Describe 2 phenomena that stabilize base pairings
Base pairing means that only certain bases pair with others (CG, AT, AU)
Bases interact via H-bonds
Always purine and pyrimidine
Double helix structure
Be able to give complimentary strand of DNA
Decribe how dna is packaged in the nucleus of somatic cells
DNA is packaged into 23 chromosomes
dna->nucleosomes->chromatin->cromatin loops->condensed chrmatin loops-> chromsome
What is meant by Karyotype?
B) how is it used in medicine?
Chromsome count of an organism used to see if organism has too many or too few chromosomes
aneuploidy=abnormal # of chromosomes
How is a germ cell different from a somatic cell?
Somatic cells have 23 chromosomes that contain 2x the total material. germ cells only have half the genetic material because they combine and get the other half from the other germ cell
what is meant by the term genome
total genetic material of an organism.
What other organelles has DNA? Describe how it happened
theory is that it was a prokayrotic cell that got swallowed up by a eukaryoitic cell.
Describe what is meant by the term DNA replication
Why is it important in biological systems
Process by which all the genetic material in an organism is copied
Helicase and topoisomerase unwind
DNA polymerase produces leading strand
DNA polymerase binds to the lagging strand
DNA joins them together
Diagram DNA replication
ADD TO 3'
Names and functions of the enzymes involved with DNA replication
-relaxes DNA from it's coils
-Unwinds DNA at replication fork (unzips)
SINGLE-STRAND BINDING (SSB) PROTEINS
-Bind to ssDNA and prevent DNA from re-annealing after helicase
-Builds new duplex of DNA by adding in the 5'-3' direciton. proof reads/corrects errors
-Provides starting point of RNA to begin synthesis of new DNA strand
-Added by primase as place holder. happens on both leading and lagging strands
-Removes RNA primer from both strands
-re-anneals the semi-conservative strands and joins okazaki
Relaxes the DNA from it's coiled nature
Unwinds (unzips) DNA at replication fork
SINGLE-STRAND BINDING PROTEINS (SSB)
Binds to ssDNA to prevent the double helix from reforming
Synthesizes new DNA strand ADDS IN 5'-3' direction. Proof reads and corrects errors
Provides starting point of RNA (or DNA) for DNA polymerase to begin synthesis of the new DNA strand
Added by primase as place holder. happens on both leading/lagging
Removes RNA primer from both strands
Re-anneals the SEMI-CONSERVATIVE strands and joins okazaki
With regards to biology, What is the central dogma?
DNA --> RNA --> PROTEIN
Compare and contrast the terms transcription and translation. Whats the starting source, where it occurs, major enzyme used and what the end product is
DNA to RNA, happens in nucleus, lots of enzymes end product is mRNA. Major enzyme is RNA polymerase
Starts as RNA (mRNA), ends as proteins, ribosome is major enzyme, occurs in cytosol
List 3 most common types of RNA and what they're used for
--carries genetic code out of the nucleus
--helps stabilize the structure of the mRNA and tRNA in the ribosome
--Takes specific single amino acids into the ribosome to help build the new protein
Provide a diagram that outlines each step in central dogma of biology. put each thing in the correct place
What is meant by RNA processing? describe 3 steps that occur to mRNA before its translated into protein
RNA processing is the post transcriptional modifications made to the mRNA
3' poly A tail
splicing= introns are removed, exons are kept
What is a ribosome made of and what's its function?
made up of RNA's and proteins, called a ribonucleoprotein. Link amino acids together. catalyzes peptide bonds
Describe 4 levels of protein structure
--order of amino acids. Linear arrangement. covalent bonds
--Specialized 3D conformations (alpha helix/beta sheets) weak interactions VDW H-bonds
--Final 3D structure of amino acid chain, including disulfide bridges
--multiple chains interacting with each other
Describe why pH is important in biological processes involving protein function
May cause protein to denature. Parts of proteins are charged and the pH may affect which parts of the protein are available to catalyze.
What methods can be used to denature proteins
Heat, changes in pH, changes in ionic concentrations, expose to surfaces
List 4 different functions of proteins in cells
1) Supply structural Support
2) Communication inside of and between cells
--haptic (touch mediated)
-- soluble (diffusion and convection-mediated)
3) catalyzing reactions
4)Transport and storage of other biomolecules
What is meant by post translational modifications of proteins?
alteration/addition of proteins after being translated
--addit'l folding, cutting, involves additional enzymatic protein
What is the difference between the term genome and proteome
Genome=all the genetic material for an organism
Proteome=all possible proteins an organism could create. much largerthan genome
Provide a graph to describe the mechanism for enzyme action from with regard to activation energy
Provide a diagram to describe the mechanism for enzyme action from a structural standpoint (explain what happens to the structure of the enzyme and substrate)
Define recombinant DNA What can the end products be?
DNA molecules made by bringing together genetic material fro multiple sources. End products can be the DNA itself or RNA/proteins made from DNA
Describe how to clone DNA using bacteria
also include plasmid, restriciton enzyme, how to insert DNA into cell, prevent growth of bacteria that didn't incorporate the desired gene
plasmid=circular ring of genetic material that also reproduces. extrachromosomal.
--open plasmid, cut DNA from any organism at specific sequence. Creates restriciton fragments
To get DNA into cell-- transformation
--Ca2+ and heat shock
--enzymatic digestion of cell
DNA ligase joins fragments together
as well as the desired gene, put an immunity to antibiotics into the added dna and plate bacteria on that antibiotic
Define polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Descrie steps including temp
list 2 applications of this technique
In Vitro DNA replication
Step 1 (94C)
--heat to separate strands
Step 2 (37-65 C)
--Hybridization of primers addition of DNA polymerase (taq polymerase)
Step 3 DNA synthesis
used for forensics medicine. can test for genetic diseases or HIV
List 5 ways a prokaryote differs from an eukaryote
Cell wall or addt'l membrane
additional nonchromosomal genetic material
flagella lack microtubules
smaller than eurkayrotes
Describe how one would identify the ER and list its functions
INterconnected network of membranous spaces, 2 regions CONNECTED TO NUCLEUS.
--ribosoes, protein secretion and replenishes membrane proteins
--Regions w/out ribosomes, lipid/carbohydrate metabolism/ lipid synthesis
Describe how one would identify the Golgi appartus and list its functions
Wavy like ER, not connected to nucleus. interconnected network of membranous spaces
Secretes proteins and integrate proteins in endomembraous system. sorts/ packages
Describe an experiment to determine if a protein was capable of laterally diffusing in the membrane
FRAP or bleach.
Define endomembraneous system
The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a eukaryotic cell. These membranes divide the cell into functional and structural compartments, or organelles. (wiki)
Explain lysosome and its functions
part of endomembarnous system
used to recycle worn cell components. takes in material and degraes it. Tissue macrophages have an abundance of these. Acidic, degradative enzymes
Describe 3 cellular pathways that utilize lysosomes
Endocytosis: cells internalize molecules by engulfing them
Phagocytosis: cells bind and internalize particulate matter
Autophagy: destruction and removal of unnecessary or damaged organelles inside the cell
What is the mitchondria and its role
power house, provides energy. generates ATP. signals celluslar differentiation, cell death, cycle and growth
Explain what is meant by cell culture and cell culture media
Isolated sample of cells that is propogated so it can be studied further. The media is the solution which the cells are plated upon that provide nutrients. salt balance 7.4pH buffer sterile
Describe a general method for isolating cells for a culture
use physical/chemical means to break up tissue
Filter cells to remove larger tissue
Remove excess fluid
Resuspend in culture media
When a culture of cells has reached confluence what happens? what has happened?
The cells have taken up the available space in the dish. apoptosis looms
Describe the process of splitting/passaging cell culture
Remove cells from used culture, add enzymes to release cells from plate
Add media to collect cells
Suck up media
Resuspend in media to deisied concentration
Explain what is meant by immortalized cell line
Cells that have undergone an oncogeneic transformation, they'll grow and split indefinetly
How the life cycle of primay cells differs from that of immortalized cells
Primary cells will live through several splitings, but eventually they reach their limit and die. immortalized cells will split forever.
Define cytoskeleton and list 3 major types of cytoskeletal proteins
--provide transport pathway for intracellular transport of molecules
--provide cell shape, bear tension
--think of them as cables in a suspension bridge
--anchors organelles in place
--resist compression, support beams
Provides structure and support,
Acts as intracellular highway system
Participates in cell locomotion
Describe at least 3 functions of cytoskeleton
Provides structure and support,
Acts as intracellular highway system
Participates in cell locomotion
What is the ECM and it's 3 major components
Collection of secreted proteins and carbohydrates foundin ECM
Fibrillar proteins: collagens/elastins
Multiadhesive proteins: fibronectin and laminin
Hydrophilic proteoglycans: bind water and growth factors
What are the 2 major types of ECM and where are they located?
Basal Lamina : separate different tissues
Stromal: between cells within a tissue
Explain how 2 types of connective tissue can have different structures and funcitons
type II: Cartilage
--resist compression due to high water content
Type I: tendon collagen
--muslce to bone
Describe a tight junction and where it might be found
seal cells together into sheets forming impermeable barier
Describe a gap junction and where it might be found
communication junctions. form channels that allow small molecules to pass
hear and neuronal structures
Describe the Cell Cycle and provide a diagram that shows its phases and subphases with descriptions
G1 and G2, growing
S synthesizing DNA
--prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase,
condensation of chromatin, nucleolus disappears
nuclear envelope disintegrates and microtubules bind to kinetochore and begin moving chromosomes
choromsomes aligned along plate @ equator
chromosomes pulled toward poles
Nuclear membrane reforms