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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (44):
1

Psychology is formally defined as

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

2

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of psychology as a science?

It tests assumptions

3

Goals of psychological science?

Describe, explain, predict

4

Professor Scott is a psychologist conducting research on the behavior of children. He observes them in an amusement park as they take turns on the New carousel. He records how many times a child complains to his or her parents about not giving a turn. In this scenario, which goal of psychological science is Professor Scott utilizing in his research?

To describe

5

According to the science of psychology, a behavior is a

Action that can be directly observed

6

In psychology, which of the following is not considered to be a behavior?

Thinking about a conversation with a friend

7

Psychologist rely on _____, which is the process of thinking reflectively and actively and evaluating evidence.

Critical thinking

8

Which of the following statements best defines critical thinking in psychology?

It is the process of reflecting deeply, asking questions, and evaluating evidence.

9

Rena’s boss, a criminal lawyer, informed her that after studying all the material on their perspective client, he has realized that the client has committed the crime; Therefore, they cannot represent him. Reena is not convinced. She wants to take another look at the data and make sure that he has come to the right conclusion. In this scenario, Rena is exhibiting an attitude of:; Therefore, they cannot represent him. Reina is not convinced. She wants to take another look at the data and make sure that he has come to the right conclusion. In this scenario, Reina is exhibiting an attitude of:

Critical thinking

10

In psychological studies, being open to the evidence means thinking ______.

Objectively

11

Psychology has advanced as a field because:

Psychologist think deeply and reflectively and examine the evidence on all sides

12

Psychology emerged as a science from the field of :

Philosophy

13

The method of study used by Wilhelm Wundt and his collaborators to discover the basic elements, or structures, of mental processes was _____.

Introspection

14

Introspection involved

Looking inside one’s own mind

15

Which school of psychology is Wundt associated with?

Structuralism

16

The historical perspective that concentrates on discovering the basic elements of mental processes in psychology

Structuralism

17

Which of the following scenarios best illustrates the method of introspection?

A researcher documents subjects description of an experience

18

In the context of structuralism as a perspective of psychology, the primary research method used was

Natural selection

19

Which of the following is true about Wundt’s early work in psychology?

He was the first person to introduce the idea that mental processes could be measured

20

Which of the following concepts would a student be most familiar with if he or she was a proponent of functionalism?

Stream of consciousness

21

The body’s electrochemical communication circuitry is known as the

Nervous system

22

Where are the characteristics of human nervous system?

Simplicity, adaptability, integration

23

In the context of pathways in the nervous system, afferent nerves carry information

To the brain and spinal cord via sensory receptors

24

Catherine is come fronted by a man with a gun as she walks home from work one night. In this scenario, Catherine’s _____ nervous system will be most likely to help her escape from the situation quickly.

Sympathetic

25

Lynel is preparing for his first job interview. The night before the interview, he is restless and anxious; his palms sweat and his heart beats faster than usual. In this scenario, Linal‘s physiological responses can be best attributed to his _____ nervous system.

Sympathetic

26

Which division of the Paris feel nervous system is responsible for carrying messages to and from the body‘s internal organs and monitoring processes such as breathing, heart rate, and digestion?

Autonomic nervous system

27

In the context of neurons, glial cells in the nervous system

Provide support and nutritional benefits to neurons

28

In the context of the nervous system, by far, the majority of information processing in the brain is done by

Neurons

29

Which of the following best describes the process of transmitting information within a neuron in the context of specialized cell structure?

Dendrite to cell body to axon

30

Chemical substances that are stored in very tiny sacs within the terminal buttons and are involved in transmitting information across the synaptic gap to the next neuron are known as

Neurotransmitters

31

In the nervous system, which of the following is true of neurons in the neurotransmitters they secrete?

At any given time, a neuron is receiving a mixture of messages from the neurotransmitters

32

Which of the following is true of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine ?

It is involved in muscle action learning and memory

33

The neurotransmitter GABA is found

Throughout the central nervous system

34

In the context of the organization of the brain, which part of the hindbrain regulates vital functions such as breathing and heart rate?

Medulla

35

What is the part of the hindbrain that is involved in sleep and arousal?

Pons

36

James his brain injury has resulted in him not being able to process information about the things he sees around him or to react to them appropriately. Which of James’ brains region is most likely to be damaged?

Association cortex

37

What is the area of the cerebral cortex in the human brain which controls voluntary muscle movement

Motor cortex

38

What best describes encoding?

Taking in the information

39

What is the levels of processing and memory?

It refers to a continuum of memory processing

40

Who was responsible for formulating an early popular theory of memory that acknowledged the varying life spans of memories?

Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart

41

Which element of sensory memory would be most useful to Stan, who is quickly scanning a map of the United States to learn were each state fits?

Iconic memory

42

Chunking is the process of

Packing information that exceeds the 7+2 memory span into higher order units

43

Long-term memory is divided into

Explicit and implicit memory

44

What are the subsystems of implicit memory?

Procedural memory, classical conditioning, priming