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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (120):
1

-following the COLLAPSE OF THE PERUZZI AND BARDI banks and utilizing the return of the pope to italy as an advantage..

-considered first of the Medici dynasty.

-Began the first system of loan and banking for the papal systems in florence by using his own wealth.

-created the MONTE COMUNALE (bank of loaning and creating bonds for city growth),

-further helps to fund art and education projects sparking the renaissance.

Cosimo de Medici

2

The Ciompi Revolt

-Was a several year revolt of underrepresented laborers in FLORENCE (late 1300s). -These were typically members outside of the very powerful and prosperous wool guilds of that time (the ARTI MAGGIORI).

-They suffered high taxation and underrepresentation. -led to violent revolt.

-Ended when city administrator SALUTATI was able to successfully satisfy ciompi by RAISING WAGES. (he was a moderate and fair politician)

-IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF A TIME WHEN LABOR STRIKE LED TO A POSITIVE OUTCOME FOR THE STRIKING PARTY.

3

-ushered in the esoteric philosophy of Hermeticism.

-Influenced by Neoplatonic visioneer Marsilio Ficino.

-used things like the Kabbala, Egyptian writings, and Copernicus model of a heliocentric universe.

-Basically said that there was a single truth evident in all religions

Giordano Bruno

4

-Literally meaning the people, represented those of Italian cities that had wanted greater political powers in the wake of budding commerce and economic systems that had spawned in earlier centuries.

-The Popolo formed the various GUILD systems that took power away from the magnates.

-Helped establish the POPULAR COMMUNE.

Popolo

5

Julius II

-POPE JULIUS II OF DELLA ROVERe family in ROME.

-didnt like the previous spanish pope, Alex VI.

6

-of the Venetian Republic.

-a 2000 member organized body.

-Was the council established that were tasked with electing the SENATE OF VENICE (the 300 members).

Great Council

7

the Monte Communale

-was a Public Bank IN used by the PAPACY (just after it had returned from Avignon).

-FLORENCE

-created LOANS for the city gov, and a BOND SYSTEM TO GENERATE GROWTH IN FLORENCE.

-created by COSIMO MEDICI (the "first" of the medici)

-ALLOWED FOR COMMONER FOLKS TO TAKE OUT MICRO LOANS/

8

- Pope in ROME.

-part of DELLA ROVERE family

-helped restore papal authority.

-helped build and fund sistine chapel.

Sixtus IV

9

Pope Boniface VIII

-Attempted to strengthen PAPAL POWER but ultimately fails and will result in the papacy to move to Avignon France!

-During his reign he tried to increase his powers in France but butted up against KING PHILIP IV (philip the fair). He wanted to control taxes and such.

-Phil tries to use lawyers to disempower Boniface and ultimately this causes BONIFACE TO HAVE A FATAL HEART ATTACK.

- the fallout from this ultimately leads to CLEMENT THE V being elected as POPE AND MOVING THE PAPACY from ROME TO AVIGNON FRANCE (the avignon papacy 70 some odd years)

10

Marsilio Ficino

-ushered in the philosophy of NEOPLATONISM

-an INSTRUCTOR of ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY and opened up his own SCHOOL based around PLATO's work.

-Blended christian teachings with PLATO philosophy.

-Believed the GEOCENTRIC model of the universe.

-Believed planets moved via angels and human emotion.

-Influenced people like GIORDANO BRUNO

11

-as related to the Renaissance, was a system of thought based on primarily SECULAR VALUES (but was not atheistic) and placed an importance on HUMAN achievement/art/culture.

-Encouraged citizenry to educate themselves primarily through study of the HUMANITIES which was based around PRACTICAL MORE USEABLE KNOWLEDGE.

-Argued that HUMANS HAVE FREE WILL, BEYOND ANY GODS' CONTROL.

-Promulgated by scholars such as Francesco Petrarch. -Often competed against the authority of the church.

-can vary in type: classical (self teaching through the literature), civic (for the "city"), christian (in terms of spirituality)

Humanism

12

Cosimo de Medici

-following the COLLAPSE OF THE PERUZZI AND BARDI banks and utilizing the return of the pope to italy as an advantage..

-considered first of the Medici dynasty. -Began the first system of loan and banking for the papal systems in florence by using his own wealth.

-created the MONTE COMUNALE (bank of loaning and creating bonds for city growth),

-further helps to fund art and education projects sparking the renaissance.

13

-represented factions of peoples within the italian cities that claimed Allegiance to PAPAL POWERS and the GUILD systems..

-Stood in opposition to the Ghibellines.

-Triumph over the Ghibellines by 1290, but split into black and white faction, but ultimately lead to the papacy and guild systems to take over.

Guelfs

14

The Franciscan Revolution

-Part of the ORIGINS of HUMANISM.

-Headed by St. Francis of Assisi

-.Pope Innocent III provided Francis the order of the FRIARS within the church and ultimately led to the things that Francis was able to promote. blah blah. go look at his card for more info.

15

Alexander VI

-some spanish pope that nobody likes.

16

Ghibellines

-represented factions of peoples within the italian cities that claimed Allegiance to IMPERIAL POWERS and the NOBILITY..

-stood in opposition to the GUELFS. -are defeated by the Guelfs by 1290, allowing for guild systems to take hold.

17

-

St. Mark

18

the Great Schism

-was a political dispute within the catholic church at a time when 3 men claimed to be the true pope after.

-ended via the COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE.

-the effects of this creates the CONCILIAR movement which sought to MAKE THE POPE LESS OF A MONARCH.

19

-some spanish pope that nobody likes.

Alexander VI

20

Empiricism

-the theory that all knowledge is derived from OBSERVATION.

-Was a product of the FRANCISCAN REVOLUTION.

-part of the HUMANIST MOVEMENTS

-Led to EXPERIMENTATION.

21

Countess Matilda

-was a leader of TUSCANY until about 1115 ce and left NO HEIR meaning that merchants and traders can take over the cities and create places like FLORENCE. RESULTS IN THE RISE OF A NEW WEALTHY COMMONER KNOWN AS POPOLLO (USUALLY IN GUILDS)

22

Francesco Petrarch

-Italian Scholar and poet and major (early) player in the HUMANIST movement.

-Coined the term "medieval".

-Responsible for reviving an interest in CLASSICAL TEXTS and interest in HUMANITIES due to his finding letters of Cicero (Roman statesman and orator).

23

Giordano Bruno

-ushered in the esoteric philosophy of Hermeticism.

-Influenced by Neoplatonic visioneer Marsilio Ficino.

-used things like the Kabbala, Egyptian writings, and Copernicus model of a heliocentric universe.

-Basically said that there was a single truth evident in all religions

24

-was a humanist and Catholic priest of ROME.

-pissed off the church because he EXPOSED that the "donation of constantine" document that stated rome was a gift for the pope's from constantine in the 4th century was a FORGERY.

Lorenzo Valla

25

were these bank corporations that collapsed in Florence because they gave out way too many loans that did not see returns.

bardi and peruzzi banks

26

(1267-1337) -was a supporter of the Franciscan order (friars) but not a member. -a contemporary of dante's and another early influencer of the approaching Renaissance movement.

-as an artist, he was discovered and taken as apprentice by fellow artist Cimabue who found his charcoal sheep drawings very realistic (one of the first to bring about the REALIST movement?)

-Grew up as poor peasant.

Giotto di Bondone

27

Catasto

-was a florentine CENSUS system created by COSIMO DE MEDICI). -helped to find out how many people lived where and what kind of wealth they were bringing in for TAXATION purposes.

-Cosimo may or may not have manipulated these documents for his own purposes (he did though and he was accused and exiled for it , tho he returns in no big part thanks to the papacy).

28

Duke Ludovico "il Moro"

...and the Swiss Companies

29

Great Council

-of the Venetian Republic. -a 2000 member organized body.

-Was the council established that were tasked with electing the SENATE OF VENICE (the 300 members).

30

Neoplatonism

-an esoteric school of thought promulgated by MARSILIO FICINO.

-Believed in a geocentric model of the universe and that the heavenly bodies were influenced by human emotion.

31

-represented factions of peoples within the italian cities that claimed Allegiance to IMPERIAL POWERS and the NOBILITY..

-stood in opposition to the GUELFS.

-are defeated by the Guelfs by 1290, allowing for guild systems to take hold.

Ghibellines

32

-a rigid world order based on biblical teachings and born out of Christian monastic schools.

-Reinforced papal authority by claiming that a true hierarchy existed made up of knights, nobles, priests, angels, etc.

-Attempted to explain all notions of reality, example: GEOCENTRISM -competed with humanism.

Scholasticism

33

-Was a several year revolt of underrepresented laborers in FLORENCE (late 1300s). -These were typically members outside of the very powerful and prosperous wool guilds of that time (the ARTI MAGGIORI).

-They suffered high taxation and underrepresentation.

-led to violent revolt.

-Ended when city administrator SALUTATI was able to successfully satisfy ciompi by RAISING WAGES. (he was a moderate and fair politician)

-IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF A TIME WHEN LABOR STRIKE LED TO A POSITIVE OUTCOME FOR THE STRIKING PARTY.

The Ciompi Revolt

34

-an esoteric school of thought promulgated by MARSILIO FICINO.

-Believed in a geocentric model of the universe and that the heavenly bodies were influenced by human emotion.

Neoplatonism

35

-centered around CHARITY. (mostly due to the effects of the plague).

-Was expressed in SCHOLARLY form.

-an emphasis made on making CHRIST A RELATABLE FIGURE. (his life and suffering, his apostles)

Christian Humanism

36

Giotto di Bondone

(1267-1337) -was a supporter of the Franciscan order (friars) but not a member.

-a contemporary of dante's and another early influencer of the approaching Renaissance movement.

-as an artist, he was discovered and taken as apprentice by fellow artist Cimabue who found his charcoal sheep drawings very realistic (one of the first to bring about the REALIST movement?)

-Grew up as poor peasant.

37

Christian Humanism

-centered around CHARITY. (mostly due to the effects of the plague).

-Was expressed in SCHOLARLY form.

-an emphasis made on making CHRIST A RELATABLE FIGURE. (his life and suffering, his apostles)

38

-was a Public Bank IN used by the PAPACY (just after it had returned from Avignon). -FLORENCE

-created LOANS for the city gov, and a BOND SYSTEM TO GENERATE GROWTH IN FLORENCE.

-created by COSIMO MEDICI (the "first" of the medici)

-ALLOWED FOR COMMONER FOLKS TO TAKE OUT MICRO LOANS/

the Monte Communale

39

Ducat

-Venetian GOLD coin.

-Became a widely used form of currency throughout all of Europe.

-Rivaled the florentine FLORIN.

40

St. Mark

-

41

Conciliarism

-the movement by clergy and others to model the papacy after a republic, versus a monarchy (which it had been).

-designed to limit papal power.

Rivaled the GALLICAN movement.

-Came about during and after the GREAT SCHISM which resulted in the papacy to move BACK TO ROME.

42

-POPE JULIUS II OF DELLA ROVERe family in ROME.

-didnt like the previous spanish pope, Alex VI.

Julius II

43

the Medici Papacy

-Lorenzo de medici's son BECOMES POPE LEO X! ROME NOT FLORENCE.

-AIDED BY CHARLES THE V HRE.

44

...House of Visconti

-PART OF MILAN.

Duke Giangaleazo

45

-(this might be a mistake....)

-hes the pope that returns from Avignon BACK TO ROME in order to restore it.

-i guess he was influenced by ST CATHERINE TOO.

-He decided to make a return because he saw the power shifting away from the church throughout all italy (oh yea and he got betrayed by some english mercenary who got paid off by the florentines to say fuck it and not help greg)

-he dies but what follows is the GREAT SCHISM.

Gregory xi

46

Angevin Italy

-Was the French rulership, notably under CHARLES I of Sicily and the Kingdom of NAPLES.

-Was supported by the papacy but fiercely resented by Ghibellines and supporters of the German Emperorship.

47

-in VENICE.

-was essentially where they built both ship's for private enterprise, as well as ships for the city's defense.

-Was a major component to the City's function: provided work for workers and defense for the city.

the Arsenal

48

-Italian Scholar and poet and major (early) player in the HUMANIST movement. -Coined the term "medieval".

-Responsible for reviving an interest in CLASSICAL TEXTS and interest in HUMANITIES due to his finding letters of Cicero (Roman statesman and orator).

Francesco Petrarch

49

bardi and peruzzi banks

were these bank corporations that collapsed in Florence because they gave out way too many loans that did not see returns.

50

-Was the French rulership, notably under CHARLES I of Sicily and the Kingdom of NAPLES.

-Was supported by the papacy but fiercely resented by Ghibellines and supporters of the German Emperorship.

Angevin Italy

51

-was the CURRENCY OF FLORENCE. the first minted currency since the ROMAN republic.

-was used widely throught Europe and meditteranean as a standard of currency.

The florin

52

(1265-1321) -deeply influenced by ST FRANCIS of assisi and another early influencer of the approaching Renaissance movement.

-He was a skilled notary. and went on to write the DIVINE COMEDY, a poem addressing the notion of life and death, good and evil and was written in the VERNACULAR (to make more accessible).

-He represented a transition of Euro culture from abstract ritual and ceremony to one of more realistic and practical things.

-He was exiled for political reasons.

Dante Alighieri

53

was the city administrator that oversaw the CIOMPI REVOLT but showed an incredible sense of diplomacy and was able to get the unguilded workers (aka the ciompi) wages raised. late 1300s in FLORENCE.

Salutati

54

(1122-1190) -aka Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarosa.

-Medievel emperor known for his grit and tenacity and lust for the Italian state, which at the time was a nice piece of land that looked up for the taking, much to the chagrin of papal authority..

-He failed tho, and created an enemy out of Northern Italy which combined to create the LOMBARD LEAGUE.

Frederick I

55

Cities of Northern Italy that began forming around 1000-1100 under the leadership of the MAGNATES .

-was a response to the growing powers of the emperor and the papacy. -Was designed to protect the people and INCREASE COMMERCE.

-Important because it led to economic development and POLITICAL STABILITY..

-Established the ORDINANCE OF JUSTICE, a system of civil rights similar to magna carta.

Commune (or "Popular Commune")

56

Aquilea

-

57

Duke Giangaleazo

...House of Visconti

-PART OF MILAN.

58

-was a florentine CENSUS system created by COSIMO DE MEDICI).

-helped to find out how many people lived where and what kind of wealth they were bringing in for TAXATION purposes.

-Cosimo may or may not have manipulated these documents for his own purposes (he did though and he was accused and exiled for it , tho he returns in no big part thanks to the papacy).

Catasto

59

Sicilian Vespers

-Refers to the successful UPRISING of the people against FRENCH ANGEVIN KING CHARLES I of NAPLES.

-Completely removed Angevin control of the island.

60

-Refers to the successful UPRISING of the people against FRENCH ANGEVIN KING CHARLES I of NAPLES.

-Completely removed Angevin control of the island.

Sicilian Vespers

61

(1198-1216) -Saw humans as the FILTH OF THE EARTH. (was definitely not a humanist and was a proponent instead of SCHOLASTICISM).

-Oversaw the powers of the papacy reach its height in the establishment of the PAPAL MONARCHY during the late medieval period.

-Was definitely not a humanist,

Pope Innocent III

62

-de Medici (of medici line/grandson of COSIMO).

-though not the first, he is considered the MOST POWERFUL and INFLUENTIAL of RENAISANCE.

-acted as a hereditary prince and was very openly CRUEL but ultimately he made FLORENCE appear less than a republic .

-cared more about power than about the family business.

Lorenzo "il Magnifico"

63

Lorenzo Valla

-was a humanist and Catholic priest of ROME.

-pissed off the church because he EXPOSED that the "donation of constantine" document that stated rome was a gift for the pope's from constantine in the 4th century was a FORGERY.

64

the Libro d'Oro

-

65

come on now. This was the 70 year period following the death of Pope Boniface VIII and the election of CLEMENT IV of FRANCE who refused to move to ROME and instead stayed in AVIGNON. Significant because it greatly reduced the powers of the PAPACY in italy, allowing italian city states to gain autonomy and sovereignty. Allows communes (guild states) and signoria (dictator states) to flourish.

Avignon Papacy

66

-Attempted to strengthen PAPAL POWER but ultimately fails and will result in the papacy to move to Avignon France! -During his reign he tried to increase his powers in France but butted up against KING PHILIP IV (philip the fair). He wanted to control taxes and such. -Phil tries to use lawyers to disempower Boniface and ultimately this causes BONIFACE TO HAVE A FATAL HEART ATTACK. - the fallout from this ultimately leads to CLEMENT THE V being elected as POPE AND MOVING THE PAPACY from ROME TO AVIGNON FRANCE (the avignon papacy 70 some odd years)

Pope Boniface VIII

67

-One of the most important figures to move Europe away from SCHOLASTICISM and more towards HUMANIST in late Midievel period. -Received a vision from God that told him to "fix the Church". -Popes were not a fan of him, but allowed him an order in the church known as the FRIARS (probably to help control him a bit). -He tried to make Jesus a more relatable figure. -Preached sermons (woah!) -Patron saint of animals (vegetarian). -His followers developed a knack for education and social services.

St. Francis of Assisi

68

the arti maggiore

-as a product of the successful WOOL INDUSTRY OF FLORENCE, the ARTI MAGGIORI was born. -were the TWO MAJOR GUILDS of the wool industry (textile refinishers, wool producers)

69

Frederick I

(1122-1190) -aka Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarosa. -Medievel emperor known for his grit and tenacity and lust for the Italian state, which at the time was a nice piece of land that looked up for the taking, much to the chagrin of papal authority.. -He failed tho, and created an enemy out of Northern Italy which combined to create the LOMBARD LEAGUE.

70

-Was the printing press shop started in VENICE started in 1493, -They would eventually begin printing PORTABLE versions of GREEK AND LATIN TEXTS. - Also helped spread SCIENCE information around.

The Aldine Press

71

Pope Innocent III

(1198-1216) -Saw humans as the FILTH OF THE EARTH. (was definitely not a humanist and was a proponent instead of SCHOLASTICISM). -Oversaw the powers of the papacy reach its height in the establishment of the PAPAL MONARCHY during the late medieval period. -Was definitely not a humanist,

72

Avignon Papacy

come on now. This was the 70 year period following the death of Pope Boniface VIII and the election of CLEMENT IV of FRANCE who refused to move to ROME and instead stayed in AVIGNON. Significant because it greatly reduced the powers of the PAPACY in italy, allowing italian city states to gain autonomy and sovereignty. Allows communes (guild states) and signoria (dictator states) to flourish.

73

St. Catherine of Siena

-extremely devout Catholic who helped the sick and dying (especially plague victims and such). -was a child of 20 siblings and she was set to join nunnery. -HAD MYSTICAL EXPERIENCES (relationship with christ). -GREATLY HELPED BRING BACK THE PAPACY TO ROME VIA POPE GREGORY IX.

74

-extremely devout Catholic who helped the sick and dying (especially plague victims and such). -was a child of 20 siblings and she was set to join nunnery. -HAD MYSTICAL EXPERIENCES (relationship with christ). -GREATLY HELPED BRING BACK THE PAPACY TO ROME VIA POPE GREGORY IX.

St. Catherine of Siena

75

Frederick II

-Grandson of HRE Freddy I. -Becomes king of the Norman Kingdom of S. Italy as well as the German King. -Hated by the Papacy for a variety of reasons (atheistic tendencies, practiced diplomacy with Syrian Sultan). -He was the last of the few Hohenstaufen dynasty which would usher in the ANGEVIN family (french, friendly with popes)

76

The Ordinances of Justice

-in FLORENCE, was a series of laws that severely limited the powers of magistrates. -famously targeted the solidarity of the nobility and clans. -was brought about by the uprisings of the Popollo (most specifically the SECOND POPOLLO UPRISING)

77

Guelfs

-represented factions of peoples within the italian cities that claimed Allegiance to PAPAL POWERS and the GUILD systems.. -Stood in opposition to the Ghibellines. -Triumph over the Ghibellines by 1290, but split into black and white faction, but ultimately lead to the papacy and guild systems to take over.

78

-aka the DUKE -was the elected overarching body of the VENETIAN REPUBLIC. -was elected by the a Senate, who was elected by the GREAT COUNCIL. -RULED FOR NEARLY 1100 YEARS UNTIL NAPOLEON.

Doge

79

-

Giotto (artist)

80

Commune (or "Popular Commune")

Cities of Northern Italy that began forming around 1000-1100 under the leadership of the MAGNATES . -was a response to the growing powers of the emperor and the papacy. -Was designed to protect the people and INCREASE COMMERCE. -Important because it led to economic development and POLITICAL STABILITY.. -Established the ORDINANCE OF JUSTICE, a system of civil rights similar to magna carta.

81

-Grandson of HRE Freddy I. -Becomes king of the Norman Kingdom of S. Italy as well as the German King. -Hated by the Papacy for a variety of reasons (atheistic tendencies, practiced diplomacy with Syrian Sultan). -He was the last of the few Hohenstaufen dynasty which would usher in the ANGEVIN family (french, friendly with popes)

Frederick II

82

-the theory that all knowledge is derived from OBSERVATION. -Was a product of the FRANCISCAN REVOLUTION. -part of the HUMANIST MOVEMENTS -Led to EXPERIMENTATION.

Empiricism

83

-

Pope Eugenius

84

Classical Humanism

-the REVIVAL of the study of LATIN, ANCIENT GREEK LITERATURE. -also brought about the belief that GOD GIVES US FREEDOMS that we should and could explore. -a BELIEF THAT ONE CAN BETTER HIMSELF AND SOCIETY THROUGH STUDY OF THE TEXTS.

85

....and arti maggiore???

furbo

86

Sixtus IV

- Pope in ROME. -part of DELLA ROVERE family -helped restore papal authority. -helped build and fund sistine chapel.

87

-as a product of the successful WOOL INDUSTRY OF FLORENCE, the ARTI MAGGIORI was born. -were the TWO MAJOR GUILDS of the wool industry (textile refinishers, wool producers)

the arti maggiore

88

-in FLORENCE, was a series of laws that severely limited the powers of magistrates. -famously targeted the solidarity of the nobility and clans. -was brought about by the uprisings of the Popollo (most specifically the SECOND POPOLLO UPRISING)

The Ordinances of Justice

89

The Aldine Press

-Was the printing press shop started in VENICE started in 1493, -They would eventually begin printing PORTABLE versions of GREEK AND LATIN TEXTS. - Also helped spread SCIENCE information around.

90

Humanism

-as related to the Renaissance, was a system of thought based on primarily SECULAR VALUES (but was not atheistic) and placed an importance on HUMAN achievement/art/culture. -Encouraged citizenry to educate themselves primarily through study of the HUMANITIES which was based around PRACTICAL MORE USEABLE KNOWLEDGE. -Argued that HUMANS HAVE FREE WILL, BEYOND ANY GODS' CONTROL. -Promulgated by scholars such as Francesco Petrarch. -Often competed against the authority of the church. -can vary in type: classical (self teaching through the literature), civic (for the "city"), christian (in terms of spirituality)

91

Dante Alighieri

(1265-1321) -deeply influenced by ST FRANCIS of assisi and another early influencer of the approaching Renaissance movement. -He was a skilled notary. and went on to write the DIVINE COMEDY, a poem addressing the notion of life and death, good and evil and was written in the VERNACULAR (to make more accessible). -He represented a transition of Euro culture from abstract ritual and ceremony to one of more realistic and practical things. -He was exiled for political reasons.

92

The florin

-was the CURRENCY OF FLORENCE. the first minted currency since the ROMAN republic. -was used widely throught Europe and meditteranean as a standard of currency.

93

-Was the belief that the power of the monarchy should be more powerful than that of the popes. (the church would be controlled by the state).

Gallicanism

94

-Venetian GOLD coin. -Became a widely used form of currency throughout all of Europe. -Rivaled the florentine FLORIN.

Ducat

95

-

Aquilea

96

Popolo

-Literally meaning the people, represented those of Italian cities that had wanted greater political powers in the wake of budding commerce and economic systems that had spawned in earlier centuries. -The Popolo formed the various GUILD systems that took power away from the magnates. -Helped establish the POPULAR COMMUNE.

97

Pope Eugenius

-

98

Scholasticism

-a rigid world order based on biblical teachings and born out of Christian monastic schools.

-Reinforced papal authority by claiming that a true hierarchy existed made up of knights, nobles, priests, angels, etc.

-Attempted to explain all notions of reality through scriptural ways, example: GEOCENTRISM

-competed with humanism because it reinforced ritualism and strayed from empirical analysis and scientific thinking.

99

Giotto (artist)

-

100

-Lorenzo de medici's son BECOMES POPE LEO X! ROME NOT FLORENCE.

-AIDED BY CHARLES THE V HRE.

the Medici Papacy

101

-

the Treaty of Lodi

102

-the REVIVAL of the study of LATIN, ANCIENT GREEK LITERATURE. -also brought about the belief that GOD GIVES US FREEDOMS that we should and could explore. -a BELIEF THAT ONE CAN BETTER HIMSELF AND SOCIETY THROUGH STUDY OF THE TEXTS.

Classical Humanism

103

-Part of the ORIGINS of HUMANISM. -Headed by St. Francis of Assisi -.Pope Innocent III provided Francis the order of the FRIARS within the church and ultimately led to the things that Francis was able to promote. blah blah. go look at his card for more info.

The Franciscan Revolution

104

-was a political dispute within the catholic church at a time when 3 men claimed to be the true pope after. -ended via the COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE. -the effects of this creates the CONCILIAR movement which sought to MAKE THE POPE LESS OF A MONARCH.

the Great Schism

105

-the movement by clergy and others to model the papacy after a republic, versus a monarchy (which it had been).

-designed to limit papal power. .

-Came about during and after the GREAT SCHISM which had resulted in the papacy to move BACK TO ROME but it basically meant that the papacy should be treated as a republic and not a monarch.

Conciliarism

106

Doge

-aka the DUKE

-was the elected overarching body of the VENETIAN REPUBLIC.

-was elected by the a Senate, who was elected by the GREAT COUNCIL.

-RULED FOR NEARLY 1100 YEARS UNTIL NAPOLEON.  (697-1197)

107

-

the Libro d'Oro

108

the Treaty of Lodi

-

109

Salutati

was the city administrator that oversaw the CIOMPI REVOLT but showed an incredible sense of diplomacy and was able to get the unguilded workers (aka the ciompi) wages raised. late 1300s in FLORENCE.

110

-ushered in the philosophy of NEOPLATONISM

-an INSTRUCTOR of ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY and opened up his own SCHOOL based around PLATO's work.

-Blended christian teachings with PLATO philosophy.

-Believed the GEOCENTRIC model of the universe. -Believed planets moved via angels and human emotion. -Influenced people like

Marsilio Ficino

111

...and the Swiss Companies

Duke Ludovico "il Moro"

112

Gregory xi

-(this might be a mistake....) -hes the poper that returns from Avignon BACK TO ROME in order to restore it. -i guess he was influenced by ST CATHERINE TOO. -He decided to make a return because he saw the power shifting away from the church throughout all italy (oh yea and he got betrayed by some english mercenary who got paid off by the florentines to say fuck it and not help greg) -he dies but what follows is the GREAT SCHISM.

113

-centered around a belief of COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT and PATRIOTISM. -Was influential in Venice and Florence. -Resulted in city states to invest in their militaries and armories.

Civic Humanism

114

-was a leader of TUSCANY until about 1115 ce and left NO HEIR meaning that merchants and traders can take over the cities and create places like FLORENCE. RESULTS IN THE RISE OF A NEW WEALTHY COMMONER KNOWN AS POPOLLO (USUALLY IN GUILDS)

Countess Matilda

115

Gallicanism

-Was the belief that the power of the monarchy should be more powerful than that of the popes. (the church would be controlled by the state).

116

the Arsenal

-in VENICE. -was essentially where they built both ship's for private enterprise, as well as ships for the city's defense. -Was a major component to the City's function: provided work for workers and defense for the city.

117

St. Francis of Assisi

-One of the most important figures to move Europe away from SCHOLASTICISM and more towards HUMANIST in late Midievel period.

-Received a vision from God that told him to "fix the Church".

-Popes were not a fan of him, but allowed him an order in the church known as the FRIARS (probably to help control him a bit).

-He tried to make Jesus a more relatable figure.

-Preached sermons (woah!) -Patron saint of animals (vegetarian). -His followers developed a knack for education and social services.

118

Lorenzo "il Magnifico"

-de Medici (of medici line/grandson of COSIMO).

-though not the first, he is considered the MOST POWERFUL and INFLUENTIAL of RENAISANCE.

-acted as a hereditary prince and was very openly CRUEL but ultimately he made FLORENCE appear less than a republic .

-cared more about power than about the family business.

119

furbo

....and arti maggiore???

120

Civic Humanism

-centered around a belief of COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT and PATRIOTISM. -Was influential in Venice and Florence. -Resulted in city states to invest in their militaries and armories.