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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (63):
1

Steps included in the scientific method (including replication)

1. Begin with curiosity pose a question
2. Develop hypothesis
3. Test hypothesis
4 draw conclusions
5. Report results
FINAL: replication

2

Nature vs nurture

Nature: influence of genes we inherit
Nurture: environmental influences
(They always affect each other)

3

Differential susceptibility

Different susceptibility to environment because of genetics, ex: alcoholism, may be susceptible but if you don’t Drink you won’t be an alcoholic

4

Plasticity

Ability to change over time. New behavior depends partly on what has already happened

5

3 major domains of human development

Bio social
Cognitive
Psychosocial

6

Bio social

All growth and change that occur in a persons body, genetic, nutritional, health
(Physical, biological)

Motor skills also, natural things

7

Cognitive development

Mental processes to obtain knowledge. Perception, imagination, judgement, memory, language, decisions

8

Psychosocial

Development of emotions temperament and social skills. Family, friends, community,

9

Impact of socioeconomic status on development

Effects medical, schooling, neighborhood. Each effecting s child’s brain

10

Correlation

Two variables if one variable is more or less likely to occur when the other does
CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION

11

3 types of correlation

Positive, negative, zero

12

What does broffenbrenners ecological system theory include

All influences from the various contexts of development. (Bio ecological)

Systems within systems

Exo: school church
Macro: cultural values, political processes, economic policies
Meso: connections between the others
Chrono: time system

13

What do psychoanalytic theories focus on

Irrational unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.

14

What does classical conditioning emphasize

Behaviors can be learned by making an association between an environmental stimulus and naturally occurring stimulus
Also called respondent

15

What does operant conditioning emphasize

Reinforcement or punishment may be used to either decrease or increase probability of a behavior

16

What does the social learning theory emphasize

Other people influence each persons behavior. Learns through observation

17

What is the underlying philosophy of learning theory

Same as behaviorism. Observable behaviors, learned bit by bit

Anything can be learned with focus on behavior.

WATSON has

18

Similarities between Freud and Erickson

Erickson proposed 5 stages that built on Freud’s theory, added 3 adult stages

Believed problems in adult life echo unresolved conflict

19

Freud
Name of theory/main focus

PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
Development in first 6 years comes in 3 psychosexual stages characterized by sexual interest and pleasure arising from body part.

Believes each stage had its own struggle

A grand theory of human development that holds irrational unconscious drives originating in childhood

20

Erickson

PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY
Eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging crisis. Builds on Freud’s stages but added 3 adult

His stages emphasize family and culture not sexual urges

21

Pavlov

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Behavior can be learned by environmental and naturally occurring stimulus. Also called respondent

22

Skinner

OPERANT CONDITIONING
rat experiment. Reinforcing and punishment can increase or decrease probability of a behavior

23

Bandura

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
other people influence behavioral. Learn through obeservation/ modeling

24

Piaget

COGNITIVE THEORY
Theory of children’s cognitive developments
Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect actions attitudes beliefs assumption.
Focus on changes in how people think over time
Maintained that cognitive development occurs in 4 age related periods/ stages
Intellectual advancement occurs lifelong because humans seek cognitive equilibrium

25

Vygotskys guided participation

Processes thoughts and human development results from the dynamic interaction between developing persons and their surrounding society

People learn by others who guide their experiences. Direct and interactive

Focuses on culture as integral to a persons development

Education is also important

26

Vygotskys zone of proximal development

Skills knowledge and concepts that learner is close to aquiring but cannot master without help.

What learner is not ready or able to learn,What the learner could understand through guidance (do teach, exciting), what the learner already knows(don’t reteach, boring)

Joint construction: new knowledge obtained through mentoring

27

What is cognitive equalibrium, how does it work

State of mental balance where people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experience and ideas.

Achieve new experiences through a lease of preexisting ones

Assimilate/ accommodate

28

What does maslows hierarchy of needs entail

All human for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs.

29

Basic underlying ideas that support the evolutionary theory

Integrates explanations for many issues in human development

Suggests humans have 2 longstanding biologicaly based drives: survival and reporoduction

Proposed concept of selective adaptation

Suggests genetic variations are particularly beneficial when environment changes benefit humanity as a whole (natural selection)

30

What is the evolutionary theory based on

Humans should understand the lives of their early ancestors

Natural fears

31

How many chromosomes does a person have

46

32

What is a gamete

Reproduction cell (sperm and ova), each consists of 23 chromosomes

33

How many chromosomes in a zygote

23 from each parent- 46

34

Difference between genotype and phenotype

Genotype- entire genetic inheritance or potential
Phenotype- oberservable characteristics, appearance, personality, intelligence

35

What is an allele

Variation of a gene or any of the possible forms in which a gene for a particular trait can occur.

Effects of variations vary greatly from causing life threatening conditions to having no detectable effect at all

36

What does polygenic refer to

Trait influenced by many genes

37

What does stem cell refer to

H

38

Combination of ovum and sperm that creates monozygotic and dizygotic twins

Monozygotic: identical twins, zygote splits apart early in development
Dizygotic: fraternal) fertilization of 2 separate ova, half genes in common

39

How do dominant and recessive traits work

Dominant is more influential, can completely control the phenotype

Recessive can only express against dominant

40

Understand x linked traits

A gene carried on the X - color blindness

41

What genetic material determines the sex of a baby

Karyotypes

42

3 main periods of prenatal growth in chronological order

Germinal (first 2 weeks)
Embryonic 3-8
Fetal 9- birth

43

When does implantation begin

10-14 days after conception

44

How many natural conceptions do not implant

Half (first 2 weeks)

45

How is the due date determined by obstetricians

U

46

What is the age of viability

Age that a pre term can survive outside the uterus (about 22 weeks after conception)

47

How long is the average active labor for a first child

12 hours

48

What are some risk factors for C sections

Longer recovery
Infections

15% of births recommended for C sections

49

What is the setting of most births in the US

Hospital

50

How many weeks can a fetus be born before and after the due date and still be considered full term.

29 and 33 weeks

51

What are teratogens (including behavioral)

Prenatal: any agent or condition including viruses drugs resulting in birth defects or complications

Behavioral: agents or conditions that can harm prenatal brain development intellectual and emotional

52

Example of teratogens

H

53

What are the reflexes

Maintaining oxygen: breathing hiccuping sneezing
Maintaining constant body temp: crying shivering
Maintaining feeding: sucking swallowing

54

Examples of reflexes

Babinski: fan toes
Palmer: grasping
Moro: flail arms if feeling falling sensation
Stepping: walking motion

55

Ecological systems approach

All contexts and interactions constitute a life.
Macrosystem: cultural values, social conditions
Exo: mass media, community, medical institutions
Meso: classroom, peers, religious class, family
Chrono: YOU

56

3 basic types of research design

Observation
Experiment
Survey

57

Cross sectional
Longitudinal
Cohort

Cross sectional: compares people different ages but similar characteristics
Longitudinal research: same individuals assessed over time, development observed
Cohort: group defined by the shared ages of its members

58

Replication

The final step. Repeating the study, usually using different participants perhaps of another age ses or culture

59

Assimilation / accommodation

PIAGET
adaptation included either
Assimilation: experiences are interpreted to fit into or assimilate with old ideas
Accommodation: old ideas are restructured your include or accommodate new experiences

60

Piaget’s 4 stages

Sensorimotor
Preoporatoinal
Concrete operational
Formal operational

60

Multifactorial

Traits affected by many factors than enhance half shape or alter expression of genes resulting in a phenotype that may differ from genotype

60

Epigenetic

Factors that affect genes and genetic expression, alters expression of genes. Results in phenotype different from phenotype

61

Info processing theory

Compared human thinking to computer analysis. Stored memories and output