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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (23):
1

Why is RNA less stable than DNA?

-2' OH is a problem to RNA
-OH group attacks the thing next to it and splits bond
-rxn can't happen in DNA
-just waiting to react

2

RNA

-Same base pairs as DNA except Urisil replaces thymeine.

3

What molecules can be a catalyst? Is RNA a catalyst

-Catalyst speeds up the rate of rxn.
-It is still present at the end of rxn. (never changes)
-Enzymes are a catalyst
-RNA can be a catalyst

4

ribozymes

any RNA preforming a catalytic rxn

5

How is RNA capable of self replication?

Has to happen in two rounds to make a general copy.

6

chromatin

dna & protein together

7

histones

very abundant proteins! Their total mass in chromosome is equal to DNA

8

chromatin structure

regulating gene expresson an the proper condensatin of chromosomes

9

how is histone octomer made?

4 different histones for a dimer and they make a histone octomer/

10

What is the charge of DNA?

Negative

11

howw big is your genone?

30 billion base pairs

12

what is a genone?

-complete set of instructions for an organism
-haploid set of our chromosomes
-genome needs to be replicated without error

13

what are the six groups are important to the chemisty of life?

Hydroxl
Carboxyl
Carbonyl
Amino
Sulfydryl
Phosphate

14

Hydroxl

OH-
In a hydroxyl group (—OH), a hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom, which in turn is bonded to the carbon skeleton of the organic molecule. (Do not confuse this functional group with the hydroxide ion, OH–.)

15

What is important about cells?

-All living organisms are made out of cells, which are made of atoms and molecules.
-Louis Pastuer proved with his swan neck flask experiment that cells can only come from pre-existing cell. No, spontaneous generation!

16

What are some characteristics of Procaryotes?

-Domains are Bacteria and Archaea.
-Lack nucleus and do not have internal membranes
-They are enclosed by a membrane and uses DNA as genetic material.
-Has ribosomes.

17

What are some characteristics are Eurkaryotes?

-Domaine- Eukaria
-They have nucleus and other membrane bound organelles
-Includes fungi, plants, protists, and animals.
Eurkaryotic cells are larger than Procaryotic cells by 10x.

18

What are the four things that make organisms multicellular?

1. Cells must stick together! It does involve mechanisms for cellular adhesion.

2.Cells must be able to communicate. In an multicellular body the cells must remain in communication, and change in response to conditions that affect the whole body

3. Dependency. Cells must be
dependent on the surrounding
cells for survival, otherwise the
body is just a large colony.

4. Differentiation. The cells of the
Body specialize at different tasks.
In most cases this is terminal
differentiation.



19

What is central dogma?

DNA--> RNA--> Protein

20

What are organelles?

-A specialized part of the cell with a specific function
-mini "organs" of the cell.

21

What is a model organism and how is it used?

-A model organism is an organism that is easy to study in a lab environment.
-Most genes identified in in model organisms are directly applicable to other species.
-Reproduces relatively quickly
-examples are fruit flies and mice.

22

What are the different types of chemical bonds?

-Hydrogen Bonds
-Ionic
-Covalent (strongest)

23

What are the small sub units that make up a protein?

Amino Acids