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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (43):
1

Which of the following has the strongest support?

A scientific theory

2

Collecting data without a specific hypothesis in mind is called

Discovery-based science

3

Discovery-based science and hypothesis testing are the two major scientific approaches that help us understand biology.

True

4

An explanation for a biological process that is substantiated by a large body of evidence is called a

Theory

5

Researchers use little evidence when formulating a scientific theory.

False

6

Which domain of life are humans members of?-

Animalia

7

Changes in ________ represent the predominant cause for biological evolution.

Genetic makeup

8

A plant will begin flowering in response to changes in length of daylight, temperature and light quality. This is an example of which unifying principle of life?

Living organisms interact with their environment

9

Which of the following is not a property of life?

Populations of organisms rarely change over time

10

What type of bond involves equal sharing of electrons?

Covalent

11

What type of bond occurs between different water molecules in liquid water?

Hydrogen

12

The outermost shell of most atoms (except for H and He) found in living organisms is full and most stable when it contains 8 electrons.

True

13

If an uncharged atom of aluminum has 13 protons, how many electrons does it have?

13

14

An atom with a positive charge has

More protons than electrons

15

Isotopes of an element have the same number of __________ and different numbers of __________

Protons and electrons . . . neutrons

16

Major elements in human tissues

C, H, O

17

Why is water considered a polar molecule?

The oxygen end of the molecule has a slight negative charge, and the hydrogen end has a slight positive charge.

18

Sweating cools your body by

Evaporative cooling

19

If orange juice has a pH of 4 then it can be described as

An acidic solution

20

Which of the following is NOT true for a buffer system?

Buffers can only be found in a laboratory

21

Why does carbon form up to four covalent bonds?

because carbon needs four electrons to fill its outer shell

22

Which of the following best describes hydrolysis?

The use of water in a reaction to break a covalent bond

23

What name is given to the following reaction? Galactose (monosaccharide) + glucose (monosaccharide) → lactose (disaccharide) + water

Dehydration reaction

24

What do cellulose and glycogen have in common?

They are both Polysaccharides

25

Carbohydrates typically include

C, H, O atoms

26

By definition, what type of fatty acid has double bonds?

Unsaturated

27

Olive oil is a liquid at room temperature and is therefore expected to have a high proportion of _____________ fatty acids

Unsaturated

28

__________ is a steroid

Estrogen

29

Proteins are made up of

Amino acids

30

The linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain is referred to as its __________ structure.

Primary

31

In cells, the double-stranded molecule that encodes genetic information is

DNA

32

In RNA, the base uracil replaces what base found in DNA?

Thymine

33

A specific stretch of DNA that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is a

Gene

34

When using a light microscope to view a cell you obtained from scraping under your fingernails, you notice that the cell lacks a nucleus; therefore, you conclude that the cell must be a type of __________ cell.

Prokaryotic

35

In eukaryotic cells, what name is given to the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane?

Cytoplasm

36

Which of the following is a function of the plasma membrane?

Regulation of the passage of material into an out of the cell.

37

When mixed with water, phospholipids spontaneously form membranes because they __________.

have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water

38

The nuclear envelope is composed of __________.

A double membrane

39

Information is transferred from the nucleus to ribosomes via __________.

mRNA

40

Which of the following is a function of the Golgi apparatus?

Protein modification

41

Plant cells, unlike animal cells, are characterized by the presence of a __________.

Cell wall central vacuole

42

Which semi-autonomous organelle is responsible for photosynthesis?

Chloroplast

43

Which of the following is a characteristic of chloroplasts that suggests that they might have evolved from free-living bacteria?

Chloroplasts have their own DNA.