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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (51):
1

PO2 and PCO2 of alveolar air?

PO2: 104 mmHg
PCO2: 40 mmHg

2

PO2 and PCO2 of oxygenated blood?

PO2: 95 mmHg
PCO2: 40 mmHg

3

PO2 and PCO2 of tissue fluid?

PO2: 40 mmHg
PCO2: 46 mmHg

4

PO2 and PCO2 of deoxygenated blood?

PO2: 40 mmHg
PCO2: 46 mmHg

5

Bohr effect

Active tissues make extra CO2, which lowers the pH of blood and promotes oxygen unloading

6

Haldane effect

A low level of oxyhemoglobin enables the blood to transport more CO2; rate of CO2 loading is adjusted to varying needs of tissues

7

Boyle's Law

Pressure of gas is inversely proportional to its volume
(Volume increases, pressure decreases and vice versa)

8

Charles' Law

Volume of a gas is proportional to temperature
(Warming of inhaled air expands lungs)

9

Dalton's Law

Total atmospheric pressure is the sum of the contributions of individual gases

10

Henry's Law

Amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in air

11

Apnea

Temporary cessation of breathing

12

Eupnea

Quiet, normal breathing

13

Hypocapnia

PCO2 less than 37 mmHg
Most common cause of alkalosis

14

Hypercapnia

PCO2 greater than 43 mmHg
Most common cause of acidosis

15

Hyperventilation

Anxiety triggered state in which breathing is so rapid that it expels CO2 from the body faster than it is produced
Blood CO2 levels drop, pH rises
Corrective homeostatic response to acidosis

16

Restrictive disorder

Reduce pulmonary compliance; limits the amount to which lungs can be inflated

17

Obstructive disorder

Interferes with airflow by narrowing or blocking airway

18

Asthma

Local inflammatory reaction; bronchioles constrict, causing wheezing and coughing
Obstructive

19

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Refers to any disorder in which there is long term obstruction of airflow and a reduction in pulmonary ventilation
Reduces VC and causes hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory acidosis
Examples: chronic bronchitis, emphysema

20

Chronic bronchitis

Severe, persistent inflammation of the lower respiratory tract; causes hypoxemia; VP ration reduced
Excess mucus secreted but cilia are immobile and unable to remove it
Obstructive

21

Emphysema

Alveolar walls break down and alveoli converge into fewer and larger spaces, much less respiratory membrane for gas exchange
Both restrictive and obstructive

22

Tuberculosis

Pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which invades the lungs by air, blood, or lymph
Lungs form fibrous nodules around bacteria
Restrictive

23

Lung cancer: squamous cell carcinoma

Most common; restrictive
Bronchial epithelium becomes stratified squamous
Dividing cells invade bronchial wall, cause lesions
Keratin replace functional respiratory tissue

24

Lung cancer: adenocarcinoma

Restrictive
Originates in mucous glands of lamina propria

25

Lung cancer: small-cell (oat) carcinoma

Least common, most dangerous
Clusters of cells resemble oat grain
Originate in primary bronchi, invade mediastinum, and metastasize quickly to other organs

26

Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Premature infants don't have enough surfactant, have to be treated with artificial surfactant until lungs can produce on own
Restrictive

27

Ghrelin

Appetite stimulating
Secreted by stomach

28

Substance P

Mediates pain
Gut-brain peptide

29

Histamine

Stimulate parietal cells to secrete HCl and intrinsic factor

30

Gastrin

Stimulates gastric glands to secrete HCl and enzymes; stimulates intestinal motility; relaxes ileocecal valve
Stimulate parietal cells and chief cells (pepsinogen)

31

Pancreatic polypeptide

Promotes gastric motility and sense of satiety

32

Insulin

Promotes glycogen and fat synthesis

33

Glucagon

Accelerates breakdown of glycogen to glucose; released between meals

34

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)

Increases blood flow to digestive tract

35

Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP)

Stimulates insulin secretion in preparation for processing nutrients about to be absorbed by small intestine

36

Neuropeptide Y (NPY)

Appetite stimulant

37

Secretin

Stimulates pancreas and gallbladder; suppress gastric secretion; secreted in intestinal phase

38

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Stimulates pancreas and gallbladder; suppress gastric secretion; secreted in intestinal phase; suppress appetide

39

Peptide YY

Sense that food has arrived in stomach, signal that ends a meal
(short term regulator of appetite)

40

Leptin

Informs brain on how much body fat we have (long term regulator)

41

Insulin

Promotes glycogen and fat synthesis; informs brains on how much fat we have (long term regulator)

42

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

The metabolic rate when one is awake but relaxed, at room temp., in a postabsorptive state

43

Total Metabolic Rate (TMR)

The sum of the BMR and energy expenditures for voluntary activities, especially muscle contraction

44

Thermoregulation

Balance between heat production and loss
Achieved through negative feedback loops (vasoconstriction and vasodilation)

45

Heat balance

Enzymes that control our metabolism depend on an optimal, stable temperature; in order to maintain, rates of metabolic heat generation and heat loss from the body must match

46

Fever

Normal protective mechanism that should be allowed to run its course if it is not excessively high
Can cause dangerous positive feedback loop: temp rises, increases metabolic rate, temp rises more, temp rises too high and causes proteins and enzymes to denature, neurological damage, and death

47

Hypothermia

Excessively low body temperature that can slow down metabolism to the point where it cannot sustain life

48

Hyperthermia

High body temperature can make some metabolic pathways race ahead of others and disrupt their coordination to the point that it can lead to death

49

Heat cramps

Painful muscle spasms due to electrolyte imbalance from excessive sweating
Occur especially when a person begins to relax after strenuous exertion and heavy sweating

50

Heat exhaustion

From severe water and electrolyte loss
Hypotension, dizziness, vomiting, sometimes fainting

51

Heat stroke

State in which core body temp is over 104 degrees F
Brought about by prolonged heat wave with high humidity
Skin is hot and dry
Nervous system dysfunctions: delirium, convulsions, coma
Tachycardia, hyperventilation, inflammation, multiorgan dysfunction, death